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Personality Psychology (Compiled and Summarized Textbook notes) Ch 1-6

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Connie Boudens

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PSYB30Personality Psychology Foundations and Findings Marianne MiserandinoSummer 2014 Professor Connie BoudensChapter 1 Understanding the building blocks of PersonalityPersonality Psychology is the scientific study of what makes us who we areBy using the scientific method of investigationit is the study of individual differences to identify ways in which people are both similar and different and then explaining how they became that wayAn individuals personality is more than the sum of his or her parts Not only can the individual parts vary among people but the way they fit together may vary as wellBUILDING BLOCKS OF PERSONALITYTraitsA persons typical way of thinking feeling and acting in various situations at different times GeneticsThe study of how genes and environment affect personality and behaviour the possibility of inheriting specific personality characteristics we also inherit potentialities that may be expressed in our personalities depending on the environmentNeuroscienceThe study of how our brain and nervous system affect personality and behaviour through the study of bodily responses brain structure brain activity and biochemical activitySelf and IdentityEncompasses our own sense of who we are including our self concept a sense of who we are selfesteemopinion of ourselves and social identity how we try to present ourselves in a certain way to others or embrace what others think of us Intrapsychic Foundations of PersonalityIt is concerned with our own thoughts feelings and motives both conscious and unconsciousRegulationMotivation SelfDetermination TheoryWhen people feel free to choose are competent at what they do and are connected to people around them they will be motivated and selfdirected for the task at hand The building block of regulation and motivation is concerned with how people adjust their response to the environment both consciously and unconsciouslyCognitive FoundationsDescribes how people perceive and think about information about themselves and the world The individual differences of people play a part which includes locus of control learned helplessness learned hopelessness and optimismpessimism Integration Combining the building blocks of personality into a whole personHow do psychologists study personalityPsychological research relies on the scientific method which describes how to make and test observations about the world in order to draw conclusions while minimizing error and biasit starts with the identification of basic facts about the world then using the collection of facts scientists build theories Scientists then make predictions and test predictions based on their theories using controlled methodsObservational StudyA type of research design in which scientists observe what people do and generate a hypothesis to explain their findingsHypothesisAn educated guess about what may be causing an observed or predicted effect Personality Questionnairesa test in which people answer questions about themselves and identify certain aspects of their personality or personality functioningCorrelational and Experimental DesignsThe Correlation Coefficient indicated by the symbol r A correlation coefficient measures the relationship between two variables It can be positive or negative depending on the type of relationship If two variables increase or decrease at the same time then they are positively correlated ie better batters hit the ball more than weaker batters However if one variable increases as the other one decreasesor vice versa decreasing as the other one increasesthen the two variables are negatively correlated ie Golf skills and golf scores Better players have lower scores Negative and positive correlations 5 to 9 and 5 to 9 are considered large with 0 to 3 to 0 to 3 being a small correlationCorrelational StudiesResearchers generally dont manipulate variables but instead measure two variables to see how they are related ie a personality questionnaire for extroversion and introversionthen observe how the extroverts and introverts interact
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