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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 3Social Learning and Culture thFor much of the 20 century mainstream American Psychology tended to downplay inherent or biologically ingrained differences between people and emphasized instead the power of social environments in which we live BEHAVIOURISM AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTALISM THE BEHAVIORIST TRADITION Behaviourism is a brand of psychology that explores the ways in which observable behaviour is learned and shaped by the environmentththIn the 18 and 19 century the philosophy of utilitarianism put forth the idea that the good society should make for the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of peopleThe doctrine of associationism purports that various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connected or associated with each other into meaningful units Simple forms of learning proceed via associationsClassical conditioning represents one such form of simple learning Classical conditioning can create something called stimulus generalization In some cases such complex associations are achieved through higherorder conditioning In higher order conditioning conditioned stimuli which have obtained their eliciting power through associations with unconditioned stimuli come to be associated with other neutral stimuli which themselves become conditioned stimuli by virtue of the associationA second form of learning is instrumental conditioning operant conditioning The behaviour is modified by its consequences Positive consequences for a behaviour increase the likelihood of its recurrence and the opposite is true with negative consequences Conditioned generalized reinforcersstimulations rewards include receiving attention from others affective rewards include receiving respect praise and affection Affective rewards constitute an emotional response from others stimulation rewards merely indicate that others are responding in some way to the selfEXPECTANCIES AND VALUES Rotter viewed the person as actively constructing his or her own reality rather than merely passively responding to it A key concept in Rotters sociallearning theory is expectancy a subjectively held probability that a particular reinforcement will occur as the outcome of a specific behaviour Over time people develop generalized expectancies about the nature of reinforcement in the world at large and Rotter classified these in terms of locus of controlPeople with an internal locus of control expect reinforcements and rewards to follow their own actions while the person with an external locus of control expects that his or her behaviour will not lead to predictable reinforcement Research suggests that in general internal locus of control is associated
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