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Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 3Social Learning and Culture Behaviourism and SocialLearning TheorySkinner wrote book on utopian society based on principles of behaviourismlived together without quarrelling and restrain of negative emotions selfcontrol Training done without punishment and by positive reinforcementrewarding socially desired behaviour Given the right environment anybody can rise to topposition or respectabilitySkinner argues that human behaviour and persons live are products of social learning in cultureAmerican Environmentalism The Behaviourist TraditionBehaviourism Brand of psychology that deals which way were observable behaviour is learned and shaped by environment dominant in 192050sBF Skinner ardent enthusiastJohn B Watson launched behaviourist movementbragged that anyone could be raised to be any kind of adult with the right kind of environmentbased on John Lockes tabula rasa How does environment shape behaviourwe learn in order to obtain pleasure and avoid painUltimate determinant of behaviour go as old as Aristotle and EpicurieanismEpicurus preached that freedom form pain and pursuit of gentle pleasure and peace of mind made the Good Life thth 1819 century Utilitarianism Good society should make the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest amount of peopleJeremy Bentham and John Stuart Millgreat deal of learning occurs through association of actions in pleasurable or painful eventsAssocationism Various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connectedassociated with each other into meaningful unitsClassical conditioning Simple learningPAVLOV AND DOGS hungry dog learns to salivate in response to neutral stimulus bw its associated w stimulusmeat giving rise to salivationunconditioned stimulusconditioned responseWatson though classical conditioning was keystoneLittle Albert11 month old infant could be conditioned to fear white rats while being repeatedly exposed to white rat and loud frightening noisegive rise to stimulus generalization FIGURE 31 70In some cases Complex association is achieved through highorder conditioningconditioned sitmnuli is associated w other neutral stimuli become conditioned stimuli by association ie young man may develop aversion to womens cologne bc the cologne his mother wore the summer he broke up w his girlfriend ie in Pavlovian example the tone becomes associated w the bell bc 1 stimulusthe tone provide information about anotherthe meat nd 2 from of learning is instrumental conditioningoperant conditioning Behaviour is modified by its consequenceconsequences decrease likelihood the behaviour will recur and weaken stimulusresponse connections ie Skinneremployed reinforcement and punishment to perform complex behaviours Animal placed in controlled lab setting and allowed to do whatever it pleases If animal was behaving appropriatelyrewardcreating shaping of behaviourOperant conditioning also needs to have discriminant stimuliothers are likely to be not reinforced and punishedPartial reinforcement Particular response is reinforced intermittentlyContinuous Reinforcement Repose is reinforced every time it occurswhen no longer reinforcedextinctionReinforcements come in many formsfood and drink positive consequence most powerful is conditioned generalized reinforcersreinforcers that acquire their power bw of their association w variety of other reinforcers ie moneydividing social reinforcers into two classes 1 Stimulation rewards and 2 Affective rewardsBehaviourism leads to wide variety of other techniques for changing behaviourbehaviour modification behaviour therapy cognitive behaviour
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