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Chapter 2

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 2Evolution and Human NatureIntroductionThe study of persons must begin w human nature Contemporary scientific understandings of human nature focus on human evolutionhuman beings have evolved to survive and reproduce these features of human adaptation that have promoted survival and reproduction are when human nature is fundamentally human individualityOn Human Nature Our Evolutionary Heritage Principles of EvolutionFundamental property of living things is that they propagateall animals and plants produce similar version of themselvesmaking for continuity of life from one generation to the nextCharles Darwin all existing living forms have evolved over time in response to interactions w environments Facing limited enviro Resources for survival and replication organisms compete with one another and the fittest winsNatural Selection Process where nature gradually selects those characteristics of organisms tat promote survival and reproductive successcertain characteristics promote survivalreproductive successGenes are responsible for inheritance of characteristicscomposed of DNASexual reproduction requires mix of parents genes from father and motherfor adaptations genes for processing lactose Persons are designed to engage in behaviours that ultimately make for the replicating of the genes that determine the design2 ways to increase likelihood of replication 1 Promote ones biological offspring 2 Promote the reproduction and wellbeing of those individual who share the same genesOrganisms who participate in replicating genes that are designed in both direct through ones offspring and indirect through offspring of kinWilliam Hamilton 1964 introduced inclusive fitnessoverall total inclusive ability to maximize replication of genes that designed it Includes the results of organisms own reproductive success and includes reproductive success of close relativesThe Environment of Evolutionary AdaptednessHumans were finally defined to adapt to life in the PleistocenePleistocene world age called environment of evolutionary Adaptednessancestors lived as foragers necessary to move form one region to another pursuing prey and seeking out best areasHumans lived in groupsbetter defence looking out for one another consolidating resources human children nurtured and raised hunters working togetherMost human activities for survival and reproductive success in EE were set wI parameters of particular groups of human beingsTe greatest disadvantage of group life isthat one is continuously surrounded by individual searching for the same food and attracted to the same matesstrife and competition dominance intertribe warfareHumans started sounding upright built tools sex and familyHumans started forming cultures 0 shared commonalities athletic sports bodily adornment cooperative labour courtship dancing education etiquette family feasting folklore food taboos funeral rites law marriage medication penal sanctions personal name property rights puberty customs religious rituals soul concepts tool making weaving attempt at weather controlEO Wilson 1978 Prevailing characteristics can be identified as modifications of biologically meaningful institutions of huntergather bands and early tribal statesFeature 2A The Evolution of Religion3738Theory of mind Basic understanding that other people have minds filled w desire and beliefs and that people act upon those desires and beliefs
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