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Chapter 8

PSYB30-Chapter 8.docx

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Marc A Fournier

PSYB30Chapter 8 Self and Other SocialCognitive Aspects of Personality Socialcognitive approaches to personality is that human beings are complex informationprocessing systems that operate in social environments how people make and use mental representations of themselves of others and their social worlds and how those representations are implicated in social behaviourThe Psychology of Personal ConstructsGeorge Kellys TheoryKelly said that people act by virtue of being aliveWhat moves people to act is their desire to know what the world has in store for them person is like a scientist seeking to predict and control eventsEach of us classifies their world by developing personal constructs which are characteristic ways of construing how some things are alike and some things are different from one another every construct is bipolarThe construct helps to predict and control the interpersonal worldConstructs are organized into hierarchy organization corollary some constructs are superordinal and others are subordinal To see the world through someone elses eyes is to have sociality corollaryConstructs differ from one another with respect to their range of convenience called range corollaryConstructs are more like hypotheses ways of anticipating what may or many not happenAnticipations guide behaviour and experienceSome constructs are highly permeable called modulation corollary meaning they are open to modificationComplete permeability is not good thoughtWhen constructs are incompatible fragmented it is difficult to make consistent sense of the worldKellys cognitive view the unconscious is merely constructs that are nonverbal submerged or suspendedOther constructs are submerged beneath other constructsAnxiety is the recognization that events lie outside the range of convenience of ones construct system fear of the unknownGuilt follows perception that one is no longer living to ones personalconstruct systemExploring Personal Constructs The Rep TestRole construct Repertory Test Rep Test asks the individual to make comparisons among people who play important roles in their livesPeople who use many different constructs have higher levels of cognitive complexity they view the world in a highly differentiated mannerPeople with fewer view the world as having a simpler more global construct systemConstruct similarity among friends and acquaintances is another line of research similarity of constructs was a significant predictor of friendship formation because they see the world in the same wayCognitive styles and Personality Kellys individuality corollary stressed that people differ from one another in the manner in which they construe eventsCognitive styles are peoples characteristic and typically preferred modes of processing information they assess way or manner of processing informationCognitive style is captured in trait clusters of O people high in O process information in an abstract manner while those low in O see fewer distinctionsTwo dimensions of cognitive style that has had a great deal of attention are 1 field independencedependence and 2 integrative complexityField IndependenceDependencePeople who use the room as the reference for their adjustment exhibit a fielddependent style for solving problemsPeople who bypass the field and judge according to inner cues show a fieldindependent style
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