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Chapter 9

PSYB30-Chapter 9.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 9 Developmental Stages and Tasks Characteristic developmental adaptation involves resolution of important life tasks during a particular stage of developmentErik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development lays out eight stages of life what are important are the two stages following early adult stage intimacy and generativityJane Loevingers influential developmental model is a theory of the development of the ego the ego is a persons characteristic manner of making sense of experienceThe theory emphasizes cognition and knowingErik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development For Erikson becoming a naturalized American is a highly symbolic event that marked the maturation of his own identityDevelopmental Stages in ChildhoodFreud used the word libido which is the energy that he believed derives from sexual drives he set forth five stages and in each stage there are erogenous zones that the libido expresses itselfErikson took the stages of the libido and transformed them into a developmental model of psychosocial tasksEach stage is defined by polarity the polarity sets up a psychosocial conflict changes within the individual and the social world create conflict that defines the stageThe conflict must be addressedErikson agreed with Freud for the first year the libido is centered in the oral zoneThese relationships define the experience of basic trust and mistrustA health development is a function of the balance of the twoThe next the anal stage in interpreted by Erikson as being centered on autonomy vs shame and doubtIt is the struggle to attain a certain degree of autonomy and mastery of the self and avoid humiliationThe childs environment must support the efforts to master related to toilet trainingThe next stage the phallic stage pertains to the questions of power centered on initiative vs guiltAt this stage children begin to master divide and conquer their world there are major sex differences boys adopt a intrusive mode with aggressive talking while girls adopt an inclusive mode teasing demanding and graspingbut both have a strong desire to make the world their ownThe next stage is latency and is expressed in an overt manner this is the time to expand socializationFor Erikson this is the stage that children phase the challenges of industry vs inferiorityAt the age of 6 or 7 children undergo systematic instruction and schooling is designed to make the child proficient in using the tools and assuming roles of adulthood this is done through structured activitiesThe child learns the rudimentary skills to become a productive member of society Questions of how can I be goodThe Problem of IdentityThe early stages are a prelude to late adolescence and young adulthood called emerging adulthoodThe past determines the future as the young adult looks back up childhood and decides what childhood meantAdolescence and Young AdulthoodThe genital stage which is the libidos last stage Erikson views it as the ending and a transformationIn this stage the developments usher in the psychological stage of identity vs role confusionWhy do we confront the identity issue first in adolescence The answer is grouped into three categories body cognition and societyFirst adolescents are the inhabitants of new adultlike bodiesSecond cognitive development Piaget argued that people enter the cognitive stage of formal operations we begin to think about the world and ourselves in abstract termsReality is understood as a subset of what might beAnd thirdly shifts in societys expectations parallel changes within the individualThere is a tension between the niche and society and the individuals desire Erikson maintains that the individual and society create identity together
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