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Chapter 9

PSYB30 Chapter 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 9: Developmental Stages and Tasks Martin Luthers Identity Crisis Martin Luther is a Catholic monk who started massive religious and cultural movements termed Protestant Reformation (Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians and Baptists). He translated the Bible into German. Erik Eriksons analysis with the fit in the choir symbolizes the low point of Luthers identity struggle, the point in his own life where he felt cut off from all that had previously provided his life with meaning. In the summer of 1505, while studying to become a lawyer like what his father wanted, he was struck by lightning and he entered the monastery afterwards. Throughout his life, Luther cast his enemies like the Catholic pope in the guise of the Devil, responding to them in the same way he daily responded to the old evil foe. The practice of selling indulgences, through which a Christian could pay money to the church to purchase salvation for his dead relatives, discontented Luther (church is corrupt). Upon reading the phrase the just shall live by faith at the tower of Wittenberg, confirmed to Luther that salvation was to be achieved by faith and not through good works or the sale of indulgences. This marked the rise of Luther as a religious leader and the spread of his influence in the Protestant Reformation. He continued to change and develop with respect to his understanding of who he was and how he fit into the world he struggled to construct an identity. Characteristic Developmental Adaptation: an aspect of personality that involved the resolution of important life tasks during a particular stage of development. Whole Erikson (character development) focuses more on the emotional and social aspects of the developing person, Loevingers theory (ego) emphasizes cognition and knowing. Erik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development Developmental Stages in Childhood o Erikson was influenced by Freud who argued that the ultimate forces behind human behavior and experience are unconscious sexual and aggressive drives. o Libido: the energy that Freud believed was derived from sexual drives. o Erogenous Zone: in each of the four stages, the libido expresses itself through a particular zone of the body. o Eriksons innovation to Freuds psychosexual stages of libido was to transform them into a developmental model of psychosocial tasks (first 5 stages were parallel to Freud while last three were extensions of development he made). o Each stage is defined by a polarity in which a positive feature of the stage is pitted against a negative feature and it sets up a psychosocial conflict that must be addressed but not necessarily solved. o Oral Stage: for the first year or so of life, the libido is centered in the oral zone as sucking at mothers breast becomes the starting point of sexual life (trust vs. mistrust or insecurity healthy development is a balance between the two). www.notesolution.com
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