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CH 1.docx

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Marc A Fournier

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CH.1 Personality - Goal of personality psych is to construct a scientific credible account of psychological individuality, situating in a biological + cultural context while specifying hw tht person is similar to and diff frm other persons What do we know when we know a person? - Personality traits: general, internal, and comparative dispositions tht we attribute to ppl in our initial efforts to sort individuals into meaningful behavioral categories and to accnt for consistencies we perceive or expect in behavior frm one situation to the next and overtime - Self report questionnaires with 20 items personality scale - Most influential theories are by Hans Eysenck nd Raymond B. Cattel have been built arnd concept of personality trait - Good trait measures are useful in predicting behavior over time and across situations. They have been employed in efforts to discern the biological bases of human behavior - 5 categories of traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (OCEAN) - Characteristic adaptations: personality contexualized in time, place and/or role; contexualized facets of psychological individuality tht speak to, motivational, and dvlpmntl concerns in personality - 3 categories of char. Adaptations: human motivation, cognition and personality, and development - Human motivation: people want and desire in life. Freud- humans are motivated by deep urges regarding sexuality and aggression. Carl rogers and other humanistic psycholgists- needs for self actualization and other growth promoting human tendencies - Henry Murray made a list of 20 psychological needs or motive and David McCllelland devoted his long career of studying 3 of them ( needs for achievement, power, and affiliation/intimacy) - Cognition and personality: role of cognitive factors- values, beliefs, expectancies, schemas, plans, personal constructs, cognitive styles - George kelley’s personal construct theory is a famous theory but contemporaries emphasize cognitive or social-cognition factors and processes - Developmental: focusing on the evolution of the self and its relationships with others from birth to old age (Erik Erikson’s psychosocial dvlpmnt theory and Jane Loevinger’s theory of ego dvlpmnt are the most influention dvlpmentl theories) - Identify with time, part of me is the whole and my past is present and leads to future is self identity of modern ID - 3 level of personality (dispositional traits, characteristic adaptation) is identity as a life story - Life story: an internalized and evolving narrative of the self tht intergrates the reconstructed past, perceived present, and anticipated future in order to provide life with a sense of unity and purpose - Freud- ppl’s stories emphasized dark and unconscious mind - Psychological individuality= traits, adaptations, and stories Science and the Person - 3 steps: unsystematic observation, building theories and evaluating propositions (scientist exploring new problem or issue and which science fields do or have done as they evolve from primitive to mature sciences) Step 1: Unsystematic observation: observe through seeing, hearing, feelings, smelling, and taste. st - 1 step of scientist process is tht of a creative observer who perceives order/pattern where it hasn’t been perceive before. Hanson- keen observer is someone who sees in familiar objects what no one else has seen before - Discern, then describe organization, pattern, design, or structure in a phenomenon tht initially seems to be unorganized and without design which can be synthesized into a more general or abstract theory abt the world wrks - Creative observer is subjective - Context of discovery: it seeks to discover new ways of seeing reality, formulating in a highly subjective manner new categories, new terminologies, and new distinctions to describe the careful observations tht they undertake. Then induction: scientist moves frm concrete/particular events to more abstract/general representations of those observed events which results in creating of abstract and general theory (step 2) - John piaget and freud; subjective obsrvtns with case studies which as in depth investigation of an individual, sometimes over a period of time Step 2: Building Theories - How it was dvlpd doesn’t reflect hw good the theory is - Theory: a set of inter-related statement proposed to explain certain observations of reality - Theory provides at least 4 diff tools to increase understanding 1) abstract model/picture 2) a conceptual terminology or set of names for key ideas and major classes of observations in the theory 3) a set of correspondence rules tht describe the specific rltnships to be expected btwn various components 4) hypotheses or testable predictions tht are logically derived
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