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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Marc A Fournier

CHAPTER 2 : Evolution and Human Nature study of the person must begin with human nature (what are humans fundamentally like?) Christian church and many religions see human nature as flawedwe are fundamentally bad Rousseau saw human nature as pure and good, but society able to corrupt us John Lockesaw us born with a blank slate (tabula rasa) Contemporaryunderstanding is based on human Evolution Evolution: Darwinargued all existing living forms have evolved over time in response to their interactions with environments Natural Selection: a process whereby nature gradually selects those characteristics of organisms that promote survival and reproductive success Darwin was missing the concept of genes (DNA) that pass on hereditary info genes can cause negative mutations or- positive ones (that promote success and survival) Richard DawkinsThe Selfish Gene genes aim at only one thingself-replication William Hamilton--- elaborated the concept of Inclusive Fitness: an organisms overall ability to maximize the replication of the genes that designed it (results of the organisms own reproductive success and the reproductive success of close relatives by whom the organism shares genes ) E.O. Wilson- argues that each of universal patterns (ex. Athletic sports, etiquette, games etc) can be traced back to hunting- and- gathering societies these patterns being adaptive for thousands millions of years, each becoming a part of human nature, coded in human genes Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness: -life on earth emerged- 3.5 billion years ago -mammals emerged- 200 million years ago - human beings emerged2-4 million years ago Pleistocene Epoch (1.6 million years - 10,000 years ago) = Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness - humans lived in groups, mainly nomadic natural selection makes us want to be together in groups The Adapted Mind: www.notesolution.com
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