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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Psychoanalysis

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 2 – Psychoanalysis The Origins of Psychoanalysis The Discovery of Unconscious Forces  Freud’s work originated from Joseph Breur’s early work with patient Anna O.  People who have physical symptoms with no physiological basis were known as having hysteria (now known as conversion disorder or neurosis)  This was solved by Catharsis – which is an emotional release (the talking cure)  Freud believed that emotions that were prevented from escaping would find an alternative outlet leading to neurotic symptoms  Believed there was a force keeping memories unconscious known as resistance  During a traumatic event, a wish or desire that went against a person’s ego-ideal causes pain so is repressed Psychoanalytic Method of Assessment and Research  Freud developed two methods two discover repressed ideas and desires: Free association and interpretation of slips/dreams Free Association  In free association the patient is asked to verbalize whatever comes to mind  Helped recover repressed ideas  After free association one reflects upon what he has said, and this weakens the resistance Interpretation of Dreams and Slips  Freud believes that slips have meaning and motive  Cause implies an impersonal force that creates action  Motive implies a personal force (such as an emotion or desire) that creates action  Freud was more concerned with the motives of slips  Dreams express unsatisfied wishes o Manifest dreams are in the incoherent dreams we remember when we wake up o Latent dreams are the true meaning or motive underling manifest dreams  When a person is sleeping they are relaxed, thus their resistance is low  One important element of dream work is the analysis of symbols. Some symbols are understood only through the person’s history or association  Other symbols have a more universal meaning  The analysis of dreams led Freud to the development of his Oedipus complex The Dynamics and Development of Personality The Importance of Sexuality  Drive is an inner bodily source of excitement o It is both mind and matter  The drive has four features: o Source – the need o Impetus – the intensity of the need o Aim – the goal and purpose o Object – the person or object through which the aim can be satisfied  There are two groups of impulsive drives: o Eros – life impulses – drives that maintain life and ensure reproduction  Libido is the sexual drive which is the main life impulse o Thanatos – Death impulses – drives that lead us to aggression  Freud believed that the primary purpose of sexual intercourse was pleasure  Believed that activities that did not involve the genitals such as sucking a thumb may be viewed as sexual  Children were seen as polymorphous perverse – their activities differ from reproductive sexual activity in that they are autoerotic and gain pleasure from their own bodies The Psychosexual Stages of Development  The libido or sexual drive invests itself in various erogenous zones or areas of the body that provide pleasure Oral Stage  Lasts from birth to age 1  Major source of pleasure and conflict  In the oral stage the infant has the closest contact with mother (nourishment) and explores using the mouth – Thumb sucking Anal Stage  Occurs in second year  Consists of retaining or expelling waste  Early efforts of discipline are targeted at the buttocks  Self control an mastery have their orginis here Phallic Stage  Occurs between three and six  Children become autoerotic and spend considerable time playing with selves  Discover that not all children are similar  Develop fantasies about the sexual act and birth process  This is where the Oedipus complex develops o The child has an unconscious desire to possess mother while do away with father o Views mother’s love as a quantity and sees father as preventing from obtaining full amount o Develops a castration anxiety o The son then gives up and begins to identify with the father so that he can incorporate the characteristics of his father that his mother loves o Seeks a woman that is like mother  In girls, (known as the electra complex) they begin to love their mother but after discovering the opposite sex genitals they turn to the father instead o Viewing the superior penis leads to a penis envy  Second definition is that women don’t envy the penis per se, but actually the power that it represents  A third, is that men are the ones that have a penis envy, being jealous of men with larger penises, and thus feel insecure and try to prove themselves o The mother is blamed for the castration o Eventually the penis envy turns into a desire for a baby Latency Period  Occurs around age seven to puberty  This is the stage where Freud believed nothing sexual happens  Sexual drive begins to be inhibited  Sexual impulses that are unacceptable are channelled into other activities such as sports and talents  Seek the company of same sex peers Genital Stage  Emerges at adolescence  The sexual drive that was formally autoerotic begins to seek gratification from others  Seek company of opposite sex peers  Uphold themselves to the standards of society Effects of the Psychosexual Stages  If the libido is prevented from obtaining optimal satisfaction at one of the stages or overindulged, a fixation at one of the stages occurs o Gain excessive needs characteristic of earlier stages  Someone needy is oral passive  Someone verbally aggressive is oral aggressive  Someone anal retentive, is very organized and exact  Anal expulsive, are very laid back, slobs o Sexual deviations may be due to fixation at one of the earlier stages  Freud also believed that neurosis was due to an unresolved Oedipus conflict The Structure of Personality  The id is th
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