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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Psychoanalytic Social Psychology

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 5 – Psychoanalytic Social Psychology  Horney and Fromm emphasized how society influences personality  Horney focused on social influences within the family, but Fromm focused on social influences in society  Horney focused on the neurotic aspects of behaviour Basic Anxiety  Is feelings of lonliness and helplessness in the world that stems from insecurity  The environment itself is a threat to children  These negative factors in the environment that produce insecurity are called basic evils o they cause feelings of basic hostility, but these feelings are repressed by children due to fear of losing their parent’s love o failure of parents to foster self assertive behaviour Neurotic Needs or Trends  to deal with basic anxiety children deal with defence strategies o they minimize anxiety and allow them to relate to others  when these strategies become exaggerated they result in neurotic trends  neurotic trends lead to three types of coping strategies (primary modes of relating) o moving toward (compliance) o moving against (hostile) o moving away (detachment)  these modes of relating result in three basic orientations: o self effacing – need to be loved o self expansive – need for mastery o resignation – need to be free of others  normal people balance all three orientations  neurotics express one orientation while suppressing others, and these repressed orientations cause anxiety thus creating cycle The Idealized Self  the real self is who we are, and the ideal self is who we should be  we use the ideal as a model to achieve self realization  a person can only develop the aspects of the real self that are also in the ideal self  in neurosis, they become separate, and they begin to deny their real self for a glorified self  this is alienation – person identifies with ideal self and loses the true or real self o they engage in the tyranny of the should – do not meet genuine needs, create false ones Feminine Psychology  believed that men had womb envy – jealous of women’s ability to give birth o this complements penis envy  females have greater superiority due to this ability and have a greater role in sexual life  men are jealous of this which takes an indirect form by way of not giving women equality o women equated with passiveness  both men and women have a creative impulse, however women can do this internally and externally but men can only do this externally o this is why men have impressive achievements to overcompensate  women’s inferiority is not natural but is acquired through social roles Assessment and Research In Horney’s Theory  used dream analysis an free association  also used self analysis that involves free association and reflection of thoughts o we use self analysis to understand our motives  daele believed here theories could be operationally designed  horney found a trend in America called hypercompetitiveness – the desire to compete and win o empirical backing for this concept o women high in this concept tend to have low self esteem o men high in this tend to be macho and not respect women Assessment and Parenting Research  research confirmed parenting influence – monkey preferring cloth mother over wired  Bowlby created attachment theory – tendency for people to bond to specific others and the distress from separation and loss o Secure children seek proximity with mother and use them to explore (secure base)  Have ego strength, peer competence, and problem solving ability o Avoidant children mix proximity with avoidance behaviour  Less ego strength, peer competence, and freedom in exploring o Resistant children mix proximity with aggressive behaviour (can be passive)  Do not trust others  Feiring subdivided Ainsworth’s attachment patterns into two groups o Those who cling to the mother is moving toward o Those who are avoidant or resistant are moving away or against  Baumrind developed parenting style – normal parenting in terms of two dimensions: support/warmt
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