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PSYB30H3 (485)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Social Learning Theories

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 9 – Social Learning Theories  Moving away from Skinner’s mechanical model of behaviour  Reintroduced cognitive variables in the Stimulus Response Formula  Reflect careful scientific procedures of behaviourist approach An Agentic Perspective  Earlier theories relied on principles of reinforcement to account for behaviour  Agentic perspective sees people as agents or originators of experience  Agency entails o Intentionality o Forethought (anticipation) o Self reactiveness – motive and regulate actions o Self reflectiveness  Agentic self is constructed through experiences with the environment Triadic Reciprocal Causation  Regulation of human behaviour through behaviour, cognition, and environmental factors  Self system is cognitive structures that regulate human behaviour o Cognitive processes influence how our behaviour will be influenced by the environment Learning Through Observation  Observational learning occurs intentionally or by accident  if learning a language was totally dependent on classical/operant conditioning, than it would not occur so readily  new behaviours also occur through observation o observers draw similar conclusions from different responses  Bandura focused on modelling (matching structure and style of behaviour) rather than imitating (mimicking)  Three factors affect observational learning o Characteristics of the model  More likely to be influenced by someone who is similar to us  Simple behaviours more readily modeled  Certain kinds of behaviours more readily modeled (example – aggressive) o Attributes of the observer  Incompetent, self dependent, and highly motivated people are more likely to model behaviour  Also people who have previously been rewarded for modeling o Reward consequences associated with behaviour  More likely to model behaviour if they believe such actions will result in reward  Four processes govern observational learning o Attentional processes – characteristics of the model, nature of the activity, and nature of subject determine what we pay attention to o Retention processes – representing the behaviour in some way before we use it later  Verbal  Image o Motor production processes – must convert representation into actions o Motivational processes  We are more likely to engage in a modelled behaviour if it leads to favourable consequences  Through self reinforcement, we engage in behaviours we see as self satisfying  Proper motivation influences the other processes to occur From Reinforcement to Self Regulation  Observational learning occurs through processes WHILE being exposed to a modeled behaviour and BEFORE any response has been made o Thus it does not depend on external reinforcement  In observational learning reinforcement acts as a facilitator, not a necessary condition  Extrinsic reinforcement (secondary)is socially arranged (example – encouragement)  Intrinsic reinforcement (primary) is naturally related to the behaviour, a physiological effect o For example, feeling of relaxation  Vicarious reinforcement is when we learn about reinforcement and punishment of a behaviour by observing others  Self – reinforcement – increases performance through motivation o Is the most important o We set standards for ourselves and respond to our own actions through self reinforcement or punishment  Self regulation – is influencing one’s own behaviour through: o Self-monitoring – understanding one’s actions, helps to set goals o Self judgement – evaluating ones own actions based on standards that are developed through observing significant others and social influences o Affective Self reaction – good or bad feelings about ones actions that motivates us to behave in similar or different ways Aggression, Inhumane Behaviour, and Moral Disengagement  Possible relationship between violence in society and violence in television  Moral disengagement – permits individuals to perpetuate violence by justifying their behaviour  Eventually through socialization we develop standards in which we use in self regulation but these can be disengaged  Moral disengagement reduces prosocial feelings and encourages cognitive and emotional reactions that favour aggression Self –Efficacy  People’s belief that they can successfully perform behaviours that will produce desired effects  Arises from
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