Textbook Notes (369,018)
Canada (162,342)
Psychology (9,698)
PSYB30H3 (485)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Social Learning Theories

5 Pages
118 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9 – Social Learning Theories  Moving away from Skinner’s mechanical model of behaviour  Reintroduced cognitive variables in the Stimulus Response Formula  Reflect careful scientific procedures of behaviourist approach An Agentic Perspective  Earlier theories relied on principles of reinforcement to account for behaviour  Agentic perspective sees people as agents or originators of experience  Agency entails o Intentionality o Forethought (anticipation) o Self reactiveness – motive and regulate actions o Self reflectiveness  Agentic self is constructed through experiences with the environment Triadic Reciprocal Causation  Regulation of human behaviour through behaviour, cognition, and environmental factors  Self system is cognitive structures that regulate human behaviour o Cognitive processes influence how our behaviour will be influenced by the environment Learning Through Observation  Observational learning occurs intentionally or by accident  if learning a language was totally dependent on classical/operant conditioning, than it would not occur so readily  new behaviours also occur through observation o observers draw similar conclusions from different responses  Bandura focused on modelling (matching structure and style of behaviour) rather than imitating (mimicking)  Three factors affect observational learning o Characteristics of the model  More likely to be influenced by someone who is similar to us  Simple behaviours more readily modeled  Certain kinds of behaviours more readily modeled (example – aggressive) o Attributes of the observer  Incompetent, self dependent, and highly motivated people are more likely to model behaviour  Also people who have previously been rewarded for modeling o Reward consequences associated with behaviour  More likely to model behaviour if they believe such actions will result in reward  Four processes govern observational learning o Attentional processes – characteristics of the model, nature of the activity, and nature of subject determine what we pay attention to o Retention processes – representing the behaviour in some way before we use it later  Verbal  Image o Motor production processes – must convert representation into actions o Motivational processes  We are more likely to engage in a modelled behaviour if it leads to favourable consequences  Through self reinforcement, we engage in behaviours we see as self satisfying  Proper motivation influences the other processes to occur From Reinforcement to Self Regulation  Observational learning occurs through processes WHILE being exposed to a modeled behaviour and BEFORE any response has been made o Thus it does not depend on external reinforcement  In observational learning reinforcement acts as a facilitator, not a necessary condition  Extrinsic reinforcement (secondary)is socially arranged (example – encouragement)  Intrinsic reinforcement (primary) is naturally related to the behaviour, a physiological effect o For example, feeling of relaxation  Vicarious reinforcement is when we learn about reinforcement and punishment of a behaviour by observing others  Self – reinforcement – increases performance through motivation o Is the most important o We set standards for ourselves and respond to our own actions through self reinforcement or punishment  Self regulation – is influencing one’s own behaviour through: o Self-monitoring – understanding one’s actions, helps to set goals o Self judgement – evaluating ones own actions based on standards that are developed through observing significant others and social influences o Affective Self reaction – good or bad feelings about ones actions that motivates us to behave in similar or different ways Aggression, Inhumane Behaviour, and Moral Disengagement  Possible relationship between violence in society and violence in television  Moral disengagement – permits individuals to perpetuate violence by justifying their behaviour  Eventually through socialization we develop standards in which we use in self regulation but these can be disengaged  Moral disengagement reduces prosocial feelings and encourages cognitive and emotional reactions that favour aggression Self –Efficacy  People’s belief that they can successfully perform behaviours that will produce desired effects  Arises from
More Less

Related notes for PSYB30H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit