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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Humanism

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 13 – Humanism  Believed psychoanalysis and behaviourism were too rigid  Study of positive rather than negative side of human nature  Rogers believed behaviour is dependent on person’s perceptions o Self is a an element of experience Abraham Maslow Human Motivation : A Hierarchical Theory  Human beings are interested in growing  Motivation is the reduction of tension by satisfying deficit states o D needs – come from requirements for survival and safety  Metamotivation – is growth tendencies o B needs – organisms drive to self actualize – reach maximum potential  Motivaiton and D needs have precedence over metamotivations  Within D needs, physiological needs are stronger than safety needs  Hierarchy of Needs o Physiological needs o Safety needs – requirement for an orderly, stable and predictable world o Belonging and love needs – o Self Esteem needs  Need for respect from others  Need for self respect o Self actualization needs – desire to fulfull maximum potential  As each need is satisfied, the higher order need become important  To know and to understand form their own hierarchy of needs o To know is more important The Study of Self Actualized Persons  Maslow’s research was not TRUE research o Was subjective, no standardized tests, not controlled experiments etc.  Self actualized persons frequently experience peak experiences – a experience with has the loss or transcendence of the self o All people can experience them o Transceders are inclined to have them o The merely healthy are likely not to have them  Self actualizers are focused on the ends and not the means  Self actualized people are by no means perfect people Maslow’s Theory  Lacks the strict methodology of an empricial science  Some believe his self actualized individual is based on the American values of individual achievement Carl Rogers Roger’s Theory of Personality  Was part of a movement called phenomenology – study of human awareness and perception o Each individual has a phenomenal field – the total sum of their experiences  Individual perception rather than the reality is what is important Actualization  The primary tendency of the organism is to grow and enhance itself  Actualization occurs when a person is aware of all experiences  Organismic valuing processes guide us toward growth experiences ONLY if we are not pushed with rules and values The Self  The experiences that enhance one’s self are valued and those that threaten it are denied  Self concept is a portion of the phenomenal wield that has become differentiated o Contains perceptions of me and I, that arise from experiences and are taken from others o Because the self concept comes in part from others there is some variance between the self and the real experience of an organism  Example – Boy finds it satisfying to hit brother, but parents tell him that’s bad, so he internalizes aggression as bad  If an experience is symbolized it is accepted in to consciousness  Experiences are denied or distorted if they are inconsistent with the self structure Congruence and Incongruence  A state of congruence exist if the symbolized experiences reflect actual experiences  A state of incongruence results if we distort/deny symbolized experiences and thus our self structure is incongruent with actual experiences o Results in tension and anxiety Development of Personality  A child needs two things: positive regard, and positive self regard  Positive regard is being loved and accepted for who you are o Unconditional – is not contingent on any behaviour o Conditional – is given only in certain circumstances  Results in conditio
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