Textbook Notes (363,559)
Canada (158,426)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 5: Five Basic Traits- In the Brain and in Behaviour E: Extraversion Social Behaviour and Cognitive Performance Human by nature, are social beings Individual differences regarding sociality should prove very important to us One trait domain that captures many of these words and characterization is extraversion (E) Carl Jung- extraverts directs psychological energy outward to social world, whereas introverts direct it inward toward private thought and fantasy Eysenck- extravert is outgoing, sociable, enthusiastic, somewhat impulsive and needless o Introvert, more quiet and with withdrawn, but more contemplative, deliberate and less likely to take bad risks Extraverts and introverts show different cognitive strengths and weaknesses with respect to certain tasks and under certain conditions Brebner and Cooper- extraverts geared to respond, introverts geared to inspect Feeling Good E positivity associated with reports of feeling good about ones life o Report greater levels of positive affect in everyday life than do introverts Extraverts may be less responsive to punishment than introverts o Introverts dwell on negative and punitive features of certain social situations Extraverts better able to regulate their moods than introverts o Mood regulation: ability to maintain positive ratio of good to bad feelings in life o Good way to regulate emotional states in savouring positive experience N: Neuroticism The Many Ways to Feel Bad Measures of chronic anxiety, depression, excessive emotionality, nervousness, moodiness, hostility, vulnerability, self-consciousness, hypochrondriasis Tendency to be distressed and upset in many realms of their lives o Worried, nervous, insecure Individual differences in neuroticism linked to differences in experience of negative emotional states o People high in neuroticism are lonelier and less satisfied with interpersonal relationships in their lives N strongly associated with so many bad things o Bolger and Schilling: high N adults tended to report greater number of daily stressors than low N adults o Reactivity: negative emotional reactions to stressful events significantly stronger o Unrelated to stress: 60% of relationship between neuroticism and distress had nothing to do Suis and martin- neurotic cascade: 5 different processes reinforce each other in neuroticism to cause build up and strong release of negative emotion in daily life o Cumulative effect life a cascade o Factors: Hyperacitivity: people high in N more sensitive to signals of punishment and negative effect in their environment Differential exposure: experience negative events more frequently because more sensitive to negative stimuli to begin with Differential appraisal: interpret many kinds of events, even those that are not objectivity negative in more negative terms Negative emotions experience a result of their special sensitivity, differential exposure and especially negative modes of interpretation create mood spillover www.notesolution.com
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