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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 9


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

B30: Personality Chapter 9: Developmental Stages and Tasks MARTIN LUTHERS IDENTITY CRISIS Martin Luther was living out a rather conventional life story of the good monk devoted to the Catholic Church and properly respectful of the authority of the Roman Pope. He struggled daily with the Devil, seeing him, fleeing him, fighting him, debating him, hating him, fearing him as a real person with superhuman power. He cast his enemies in the guise of the Devil, responding to them in the same way he daily responded to the old evil foe. By the time of his fit in the choir (his first event where he questioned who he was and began the struggle of identity), he began to view the Roman Church as the enemy rather than the saviour, groping furiously for an alternative image of self with which to build a new identity. He believed men and women encounter God in the here and now- personally, rather than through the institutions of the church- through Gods son Jesus; men and women need only accept Jesus- have faith that Jesus is the son of God in order to be redeemed o This religious insight consolidated his new identity It is during this critical period in the human lifespan, Erikson argued that many of us first confront the problem of identity o Eriksons concept of identity is a characteristic developmental adaptation o It is an aspect of personality that involves the resolution of important life tasks during a particular stage of development Martin Luther seemed to move from high achievement motivation in his youth and early adulthood to high power motivation. In terms of social-cognitive adaptations, he had a relatively simply construct system that was dominated by the bipolarity of God vs. the Devil. ERIK ERIKSONS THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES IN CHILDHOOD The strongest intellectual influence on Erik Erikson was Sigmund Freud. Freud argued that the ultimate forces behind human behaviour and experience are unconscious sexual and aggressive drives. o Freud used the word libido to refer to the energy that he believed was derived from sexual drives. o He set forth 5 stages of the libidos development 1 www.notesolution.com o In each stage the libido expresses itself through a particular zone of the body, called an erogenous zone (includes mouth, anus, genitals) Eriksons major innovation was to take Freuds psychosexual stages of the libido and transform them into a developmental model of psychosocial tasks He identified 8 stages of human development and their corresponding psychosocial tasks. At each of Eriksons stages, changes within the individual and within the individuals social world combine to create a central conflict that defines the stage. The conflict must be addressed, though not necessarily resolved, within the given stage, says Erikson, before the individual may move to the next stage. st The 1 stage is the oral stage is completely dependent on caregivers for the satisfaction of basic bodily needs. He agreed with Freud that for the first year of life the libido is centered in the oral zone as sucking at the mothers breast or bottle becomes the starting point of sexual life. These relationships determine the extent to which the infant will experience basic trust or security on the one hand and mistrust or insecurity on the other. nd The 2 stage is the anal stage, the toddlers sensual energy is expressed mainly in holding in and letting go of feces. Successful toilet training signals a certain degree of mastery over the sexual instinct in that the libido comes under the control of socially prescribed schedules. One of the first great accomplishments of the self, suggesting a sense of autonomy and self mastery 2 www.notesolution.com
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