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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 in detail

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 8: Personality Social Cognitive Aspects o The Psychology of Personal Constructs George Kelleys Theory Exploring Personal Constructs: Rep Test o Cognitive Styles and Personality Field Independence-Dependence Integrative Complexity o Social-Cognitive Theory and the Person (Feature 8.A Religious Values and Personality) Assumption human beings are complex information-processing systems that operate in social environments Cognition influences social behavior. Social behavior influences cognition. Social cognitive adaptations Traits provide a rough sketch; characteristic mental representations of self and social behavior (Social-cognitive aspect) help fill in gaps George Kelleys Theory Person (as an inquisitive scientist) is motivated to predict or anticipate what will happen to him Cannot simply use: Sexual & aggressive instincts (Freud), principles of reinforcement (Behaviorists), needs & motives (Murray & McClelland), or goals, strivings, or urge to self-actualize (Rogers & Maslow) to explain what motivates ppl to act. Ppl are alive, they act by virtue of being alive. Personal Constructs Characteristic ways of construing how some things are alike and some things different from one another (bipolar; e.g. seriousfunny) Fundamental Postulate A persons processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events www.notesolution.comCorallaries Experience, Organization, Individuality, Sociality, Range (Range of Convenience), Modulation, Fragmentation, Construction, Dichotomy, Choice, Communality. When we confront inexplicable events (outside range of convenience) which our construct system does not seem to be prepared, we expe anxiety. Guilt perception that one is no longer living according to an especially valued aspect of ones personal-construct system Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test) - Personality assessment designed by Kelly to explore personal constructs in ppls lives. Role title list compare and contras t usage of same construct is concluded to be a valuable construct of your life Procedures have been developed for quantifying results from Rep test. One line of research examined individual differences in Cognitive Complexita ynd another line of research examinC ednstruct Similarityamong friends. Cognitive Complexity When use many different kinds of constructs, said to manifest higher lvls of cognitive complexity (vice versa) Construct Similarity Ppl who have similar construct systems tend to become close friends and remain friends for longer periods of time Construct similarity > Trait similaritin predictingfriendship formation(Sharing meanings may be more important than doing the same thing) Cognitive Styles & Personality Kellys individuality corollary stressed that ppl differ from one another in the manner in which they construe events, this idea has been recognized for centuries. Cognitive Style Ppls characteristic way and typically preferred modes of processing information a persons characteristic way manner of processing informa Ntion.the same asCognitive abilities (how well a person performs on a task) Cognitive style is partly captured in Beig 5 trait taxonomyvia clusterO Openness to Experience www.notesolution.com
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