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Chapter Seven/ Lecture notes

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Marc A Fournier

: GOALS & STRIVING Overview The Legacy of David C. McClelland Pioneer of social motivationneeds How he introduced the idea of implicit motive of a motivational quality that is existence inside of us but outside of our own conscious awareness How he pioneered the study of implicit motivation in the area of need for achievement and later in the need for powerintimacy The Needs for Power & Intimacy Trait x Motive Interactions Introduction to Social Motivation McClellands Definition of a MotiveNeed: A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behaviour in certain situations o Motive of McClelland are like a lens, a way of filtering ones experience into the kinds of qualities that are most meaningful and relevant to you o All of us see the world, but all of us see the world differently. One of the lenses in which we see the world that distinguishes my view of things from yours are the motivational preference that I have that are different from you Motive Conscious Intention o Some motives are aware or known to us. Some motives we have access to o We can all look inside ourselves and become aware of the intentions we have and the goals were pursuing o McClelland felt that there are certain motivations that were only partly accessible to consciousness; that lie primarily outside of consciousness and that these motives play a profound role in shaping our perception, cognition and our behaviour o Much of what motivates us are not motives that are consciously aware of Motive Trait o Motives are different from traits. Traits are the question of what o Motivational constructs reference questions that begin with why o When were trying to answer why someone does what heshe has done, we are making reference or seeking information about the motive underlying their behaviours. We are assuming behaviours are purposeful and deliberate. It is motivated to a certain end. o What is the motive underlying or residing behind our behaviour? Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) How do we measure something that people arent aware of The most common measurement strategy in personality psychology is self-reports. We rely most often on the participant to tell us about what heshe is like, what heshe wants If the profound motives that organize and energize a persons behaviour or outside of conscious awareness, obviously we cannot rely on self-report because people cant report on things of which they are not aware How do we get access to those implicitunconscious motivations? McClellands strategy, the strategy he pioneered was to make a use of a method first introduced by Henry Murry several decades earlier The TAT has a very clever strategy behind it; the TAT consists of standardized sequence of cards. The cards depict pictures, there is a scene being depicted on the card The participant is instructed to look at the picture and then to write a story about what is going on in the picture. They are meant to consider where the characters have come from, whats currently ongoing in the scene and what will happen beyond the image that is depicted in the card Participants are required to write a story in response to a series of pictures and the series of pictures is standardized, meaning all participants sees the exact sequence of pictures in the exact same order The notion is the pictures themselves dont have fixed story embedded in them, the picture dont tell you what pictures to write. The pictures are inherently ambiguous. The picture is ambiguous, so you must make www.notesolution.com
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