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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 / Lecture

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Marc A Fournier

: SELF-DETERMINATION Overview Part I. Humanism Part II. Self-Determination Part III. Goals & Self-Concordance PART I : Overview Humanistic Approaches to Psychology Rogers Fully Functioning Person Maslows Self-Actualizer - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Humanism An optimistic and positive view of the person as inherently good Views the human being as rational, purposeful, and autonomous, capable of creativity and experiencing deep and profound insights into reality We are fundamentally good as a specie, we are rational, we are capable of rationality, we are capable of conscious intention and purpose, we are capable of autonomous self-regulation, The 3rd force of psychology, a viable viewpoint on human nature that is distinctive from both psychoanalysis (dark)and behaviourism (neutral, product of our learning history) The humanistic tradition in comparison with psychoanalysis and behaviourism adopts a substantially optimistic view of the human condition From the humanistic view, all humans are essentially good and all of us intrinsically on a positive developmental trajectory All of us come into the world with potentials, and we are constitutionally designed to realize these potentials. Whether we do is largely a function of the environment that we find ourselves in Humanistic often attending to the surrounding environment and asking is this environment supporting or nourishing the growth and the development of the person who occupies it Humanistic gives us far more credit for our capacity to understand ourselves and the world around us Carl Rogers (1902-1987) The organism has but one basic tendency and strivingto actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism. (Rogers, 1951) Rogers believe that inside of each of us is a true self; there is a person we intended to become, and as a part of our innate developmental trajectory, we will realize that true person, we are all in the process of becoming that person we are meant to be and that true self is inside of us always There are environments that will support this development and there are environments that will derail it. How do you know when youre taking the right steps towards becoming the person you are meant to be? How do you know that the steps youre taking, the choice youre making is the right one? How its going to actualize the person that true self whom Rogers believe is inside of you? The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP) Humans have a fundamental capacity to perceive the growth-relevant implications of their experiences and choices Roger speculated there is a mechanism that informs us as to whether or not we are taking growth promoting steps in our development The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP) is the little voice in our head that sometimes we hear, that tells us what we are doing is right or wrong Rogers opinion what that people dont need to be told what is the right thing to do, people need far less advice than we give them because he believes all of us have this intuitive structure that feeds back to us information about whether or not the choices were making are right or wrong, whether the choices we are making are going to actualize our true self or frustrate it www.notesolution.com OVP is a fundamental capacity that is built in to the species to perceive the implications of our experiences and choices for our personal growth It is the basic idea that we have these little voices in our head that let us know when were doing something stupid Carl Rogers was convinced at the foundation of things, a single motivation underlying all human behavior The Fully Functioning Person Openness to Experience Different from the Big Five This idea is to characterize the fully functional person is free of the need to defensively to distort the reality they experience They are able to listen attentively without anxiety both within the stimuli within them and the stimuli from the outer environment They are non-defensive and receptive to what reality is bringing to their attention; both inner, the bodily we experience as well as the social reality we experience from outside Isnt overwhelmed with insecurities and defensive preoccupations, they can confront the reality of things They have the stability of characters to face negative feedback, criticism, rejection, failure and so on Existential Living The fully functioning person isnt preoccupied with the remembered past or with an anticipated future, they arent overwhelmed with the regrets from choices theyve made before and they arent overwhelmed with the feelings of apprehension about the choices they have to make in the future. They simply live within the moment They are in the present moment and fully appreciate the present moment offers Self-Trust A fully functioning person has to trust their inner person and abide by what is it the OVP is instructing them to do They know their instincts leads to growth promoting outcomes, so they trust themselves and they go with their gut A fully functioning person is a term Rogers used to characterize someone who is actualizing their inner potentials and is bringing out that true sense of self On Becoming a Person Positive Regard All of us have an innate need to be loved and to be accepted, particularly by our parents in early ages but as we age, by other socializing agents as well, like peers, authority figures All of us have a need for positive regard. We need to look at others and see reflected in them an appreciation and respect in a steam that they have for us Conditions of Worth Most of us as a part of maturation finds that there are conditions attached to the worth we received Most of us find that parents, teachers and other socializing agents are not unconditional in the regards to us More than not there are conditions to be met and whether these conditions are stated explicitly or rather just insinuated and left implicit Most of us figure out along the way that something things will lead to approval and other things will lead to disapproval As we grow we are learning what things we need to do and what kind of people we need to be in order to secure love and attention and affection from others Conditional Positive Regard The idea of love and approval are earned occasionally by meeting certain conditions www.notesolution.com As we grow, we learn the conditions upon which our worth is attached and our conditions upon which positive regard will be bestowed Client-Centered Therapy Unconditional Positive Regard The counsellor must provide unconditional positive regard The counsellor must accept and value the client without reservation or condition of worth The counsellor must be fully and unconditionally accepting of all the components of the self that the client is bringing in to the therapy session Empathic Understanding A key way of conveying your unconditional positive regard as a counsellor is by expressing your empathic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference You must in your words to the client convey you see the world, you are capable of seeing the world as the client sees it You must be able to adopt the same kind of reference as the client do and you can validate the perspective they have on their own history Reflection Reflection is a specific behaviour that a counsellor or a psychotherapist would use to convey their empathic understanding Reflection is when a counsellor accurately expresses the clients attitude and feelings. You need to put into words what the client has said or trying to say and do it in such a way they get the fact that you get it You are able to convey in some extent the feelings they are having also in existence inside you The behaviour that were reflecting back to the client, his/her own attitude or feeling is thought over the course of psychotherapy to have a transformative impact on the clients sense of self Psychotherapy deals primarily with the organization and the functioning of the self. There are many elements of experience which the self cannot face, cannot clearly perceive because to face them or admit them would be inconsistent with and threatening to the current organization of the self. In client-centred
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