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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 9: Developmental Stages and Tasks PSYB30 Martin Luther was trying to form ego identity, resolved his identity problem by establishing new religion o Fell to ground as a catholic monk and shouted during his identity crisis MARTIN LUTHERS IDENTITY CRISIS Martin Luther is created with starting Protestant reformation, where Europeans left the catholic church for their own Protestant churches Brought writings of Christianity to common people by translating bible to German Erik Erikson wrote psychobiographical analysis called Young Man Luther o "Fit in choir" (falling to ground) was Luthers identity struggle. What he assumed he was didnt fit who was now, lost his sense of meaning in life Luther was in school to be lawyer, but became monk after lightening almost killed him and he asked St. Anne to save him o He was a very devoted monk, which Erikson believed was hiding deeper doubts and ambivalence Luther saw the pope and the catholic church as the enemy, and anyone that was his enemy was the devil At the Wittenberg tower, he thought of God as accessible to the common person, salvation was achieved by faith, not through good work or indulgences Luther worked continuously on his identity, many events that had impact on his identity happened in late adolescent and early adult years o Erikson argued it is during this time that people confront problem of identity Identity is developmental adaption, resolution of life task during a stage of development Luther appeared to be high in conscientiousness and neuroticism, high in achievement motivation in youth and high power motivation in midlife o Bipolarity of God and Devil may have represented Luthers good and bad sides www.notesolution.com Chapter 9: Developmental Stages and Tasks PSYB30 o Erikson believed that the most important part of Luthers personality was his identity struggle, which needs to be understood in developmental context Two most integrative and influential theories of development in personality psychology: o Eriksons theory of psychosocial development 8 stages of life people go through Early-adult stage of identity, intimacy and generativity are especially significant o Loevingers theory says ego is persons way of making sense of experience Emphasizes cognition and knowing as opposed to social and emotional aspects (in Eriksons theory) o These two theories are frameworks for identifying our developmental adoptions in time ERIK ERIKSONS THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Erikson grew up as an outsider because he was Jewish, but looked Scandinavian o He was both similar and different from his peers, both groups rejected him Taught in Vienna school for Freuds patients and friends Took training in psychoanalysis Emigrated to US, and took surname of Erikson (symbol for maturation of his identity) DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES IN CHILDHOOD Freud was Eriksons largest intellectual influence Freud argued that unconscious sexual and aggressive desires drive behaviour Libido: Energy from sexual rives Erogenous zone: Libidos expression in a part of body o Located depends on which stage of libido development we are in www.notesolution.com Chapter 9: Developmental Stages and Tasks PSYB30 o First stage is oral, child gets pleasure from mouth and establishes bond with caregiver Erikson took Freuds psychosexual stages of libido and turned them into psychosocial tasks o 8 stages of development and psychosocial tasks o First five stages are similar to Freuds, last 3 push development past middle age Erikson emphasized that interpersonal, social, cultural, historical and contextual factors give developmental tasks their meanings Each stage has positive and negative feature, which has psychosocial conflict o This conflict doesnt have to be resolved, but has to addressed for each stage Eriksons 8 stages of life: Age Psychosexu Psychosocial Issue Central Virtue al (Freud) Questio Stage n 1. Infancy Oral Trust vs. mistrust Security Hope 2. Early Anal Autonomy vs. shame and Indepen Will childhoo doubt dence d 3. Childhoo Phallic Initiative vs. guilt Power Purpose d (play age) 4. Child Latency Industry vs. inferiority Goodnes Competence (school s age) 5. Adolesce Genital Identity vs. role confusion How do I Fidelity nce and fit into young world, adulthoo who am I d 6. Young Intimacy vs. isolation love Love adulthoo d www.notesolution.com Chapter 9: Developmental Stages and Tasks PSYB30 7. Mature Generativity vs. stagnation Giving a Care adulthoo (self-absorption) gift d 8. Old age Ego integrity vs. despair Receivin Wisdom g a gift Oral stage: 1 stage of psychosexual development, libido is expressed by oral activities o Healthy psychosexual development comes from bond with mother Infants need to consistently reduce tension from hunger from caregiver o Erikson said this establishes trust or mistrust o Trust versus mistrust: 1 stage in Eriksons psychosocial development, gets trusting relationship with environment Healthy development is balance between trust and mistrust Anal stage: 2 stage of psychosexual development, libido is expressed by holding in and letting go of feces o Gives us sense of mastery over libido o Erikson said this stage establishes autonomy versus shame and doubt o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: 2 stage in psychosocial development, wants independence and competent agency in environment Child is 2-3 years old Want to feel mastery, not doubt and humiliation Phallic stage: 3 stage of psychosexual development, libido is expressed in genital region o Oedipus complex starts here, children have unconscious sexual feelings for one parent and aggressive feelings for other Child is 3-5 years old www.notesolution.com
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