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PSYB30 Lecture notes, Lec 12 - 17

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

PSYB30 Personality lectures LECTURE 12: Chapter 7 Goals & Strivings Characteristic Adaptations (Motivational, cognitive, and developmental constructs) David C. McClelland pioneered the study of many motivationsneeds A recurrent preference of readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behaviour in certain situations. o Everyone sees the world differently one of the reasons for this is that we have different motivational preferences from each other Motive IS NOT a conscious intention. Motive IS NOT a trait. o Traits address the question of what what behaviour does one typically show? What feelings? o Motivational constructs address the question of why why someone does what they do what is the motive underlying our behaviour? o We are aware of some motives, but McClelland thinks there are some motivations that are only partially accessible to consciousness (that shape perceptioncognitionbehaviour). Since motive is not necessarily conscious, how do you measure something we are not aware of? o We rely most often on self-report, but people cannot report on things they are not aware of McClelland made use of method first developed by Henry Murray, the Thematic Apperception Test, TAT TAT subjects compose stories in response to a series of ambiguous picture cues (ex, man and woman sitting by the river). Participant is instructed to look at the picture and then write a story in response to the series of pictures (the pictures are standardized all participants see the same pictures in the same order) o Notion is that the pictures do not imply a story, so you must make up a story on your own. Whatever you see in the cards is not intrinsic to the card, it is intrinsic to you story content reveals the underlying needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjects project onto the picture o TAT is a projective test (you are projecting your reasoning) McClelland began his career interested in the achievement motive o Believed that the need for achievement is an implicit motive (we are only partially conscious of it), therefore methods such as the TAT must be used to measure it o To do this, you must have a scoring system to code the stories that people create to themes of motivation First determine what themes distinguish the stories written under motive arousal conditions from those written under neutral testing conditions. Use several motive arousal conditions as part of this process. Then use those themes as part of a scoring system to assess the motivation of individuals. Assume that those individuals who show more frequent thematic imagery has a higher baseline level for that specific motive. o McClelland had two groups of participants made them take the tests, and addressed one group (aroused) telling them that their performance would reveal their intelligence in leadership; the second group (neutral) did not receive this message. Premise is that the aroused group will score higher for achievement motivation Criticisms of the TAT: o Poor reliability asking participants to tell story after story makes for poor internal consistency Reliability is important because it puts a ceiling on validity o Poor criterion validity some say that the TAT inconsistently predicts the things it should predict www.notesolution.com o Poor convergent validity with questionnaire measures of motives, which demonstrate greater reliability and criterion validity (self report and implicit measures may have low correlation, McClelland argues that that isnt a problem, because implicit measures are those we are unaware of though others see this as a concern) n Ach (need for achievement) a recurrent concern with doing things better and with surpassing standards of excellence building a better mousetrap o Achievement imagery a character in the story wants to perform better either by: Being involved in a long-term achievement project Meeting an internal standard of excellence Outperforming someone else Doing something unique o Predicts highly in the career of businessentrepreneurship High n Ach in managers at their time of entry into AT&T predicted promotion to Level 3 after 16 years, but not to Level 4 (manager-level) n Pow (need for power) recurrent concerns with having impact, control or influence on another person, a group of persons or the world at large No press is bad press there is no distinction between goodbad power o Power imagery a character in the story wants to have impact or influence by: Controlling others Taking strong, forceful actions, Giving unsolicited (not asked for) help or advice to others Attempting to impress, persuade or prove a point o Predicts highly to careers in the ministry, journalism, psychologypsychiatry, politics Power motivation suggests that being drawn to politics also holds that you are successful Correlations have been made between n Pow in inaugural addresses and performance as a president. Criticisms are that presidents have speech-writers, but realistically the ideals and final word released reflect the presidents words n Aff (need for affiliation) recurrent concerns with establishing, maintaining, or restoring a positive affective relationship with another person or group of persons o Affiliation imagery character in story wants to establish, maintain, or restore friendly relationships by: Expressing warm, positive or intimate feelings Expressing sadness about separation Affiliative, companiote activities Nurturant acts o First concern affiliation motivation scoring system suffered from poor reliability in comparison to achievementpower o Second concern need for affiliation became better characterised as affiliation anxietyrejection anxiety this was not the original intent of McClelland, so later research conducted alongside his student Dan McAdams allowed him to revise it into intimacy: n Intimacy (need for intimacy) recurrent concerns with experiencing warmth and closeness in personal relationships All you need is love they reformulated the definition and stripped the anxiety aspect o Intimacy predicts friendship shown in McAdams study (1984) n Int & Friendship Invited 105 college students to write TAT stories and describe 10 friendship episodes during the previous two weeks see slides for results we see that people high in the need for power are much more sociable than those who are low in this need (they associate with larger groups of www.notesolution.com
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