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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Faith in God served as the mighty fortress and sword and shield victorious Chapter 9 Developmental Stages and Tasks In psychological standpoint, Luther projected the devil onto others. Especially his enemies. Martin Luther was a Catholic monk when he suddenly fell raving to the ground one day and began roaring like a bull. The seed of Luthers discontent with the pope and the church were sown in the Erfurt monastery as he witnessed the enactment of corrupt He began screaming like one possessed demon. I am not! I am not this! I church policies. am nothing! I do not know who I am! When he fit in the choir, Luther was renouncing his old identity as an In psychological terms, this basic problem is called EGO IDENTITY. obedient monk, identifying the Roman church as an enemy rather than 2 fundamental questions of identity: Who am I? How do I fit into the the saviour. adult world? Luther envisioned a new image of God more directly accessible to the common person than the distant God of the catholic orthodoxy. Martin Luthers Identity Crisis Salvation was to be achieved by faith, not through good deeds. Credited with starting the massive religious and cultural movement People encounter God in the here and now through Gods son Jesus. Only termed the Protestant Reformation. need to accept Jesus and have faith that Jesus is the son of God- in order to be redeemed. Credited with bringing the sacred writings of Christianity to the common people by providing the first authoritative translation of the Bible into German. Over the course of his adult life, Luther continued to work on his Luther has been viewed as a monumental political figure in German identity. history one of the fathers of German nationalism and a hero for some He continued to change and develop with respect to his understanding of revolutionaries. who he was and how he fit into the world. One of the most provocative applications of personality theory to the life According to Erikson, during this critical period (late adolescence and course of a single adult is Erik Ericsons psychobiographical analysis of Luthers identity formation. early adult life) in the human lifespan that many of us FIRST confront the problem of identity. First analysis is how Luther tries to fit in the choir. This expresses the Eriksons concept of identity is a characteristic DEVELOPMENTAL utter terror and confusion of a young man who has come to deny the very adaptation. assumptions upon which he has built his own sense of who he is and how he fits into the adult world. In Martin Luthers individuality, we might talk about high conscientiousness and neuroticm. This symbolizes the low point of Luthers identity struggle. At the dispositional trait level, Luther was consistently hard working In the summer of 1505, Luther was following the career path sketched out by his father, Hans Luder, a capitalist. He wanted him to be a and strong-willed, subject to intense emotional mood swings, sometimes stubborn and obsessive. Oscillate between two poles of openness to lawyer. experience. One summer evening, a bolt of lightning struck the ground near him, he screamed, Help me St. Anna I want to be a monk! Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial developmental lays out 8 stages of He prayed more than the others. He denied himself of the simplest life through individuals progress, from birth to death. earthly comforts. Luther struggled daily with the Devil, seeing him, fleeing, fighting, hating, fearing him as a real person with superhuman power. Erik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development The Devil was the old evil foe. Erik Homburger Erikson was born of Danish parent in 1902, Germany. www.notesolution.com Protestant father abandoned the family. Jewish mother remarried. o Erikson agrees with Freud that the libido is centred in the oral zone as sucking at the mothers breast or bottle becomes the He did not look like a Jew. Erikson developed an image of self as an OUTSIDER, forced to define clearly how he was different from as well as starting point of sexual life. similar to others in his environment. o The relationship between the mother and child in this stage determines to which extent the child will experience basic An exceptional student, he abandoned his adoptive fathers hope of him TRUST or security and basic MISTRUST or insecurity. being a physician and wandered around Europe, studying art. o Sucking forms a bond that provides the infant with a sense of During this very difficult period, he experienced a crisis in identity that brought with it excessive anxiety and even occasional panic. This was trust, feeling of understanding that the world is safe. because of the inability to work with discipline and regularity. o Healthy development is a function of the balance between the two. He eventually undertook training in psychoanalysis with and was psychoanalyzed by Anna Freud. Second Stage (ANAL STAGE) (AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND In 1939, he became a naturalized American citizen and officially adopted DOUBT Erikson) the surname of Erikson, a highly symbolic event that marked the o 2 or 3 years of life, the toddlers sensual energy involve regular maturation of his own identity. cycles of tension build up and release providing sensual Developmental Stages in Childhood pleasure. o Successful toilet training signals certain degree of mastery The strongest intellectual influence on Erik Erikson was Sigmund over the sexual instinct in that the libido comes under the Freud. control of socially prescribed schedules. Freud the ultimate forces behind human behaviour and experience are unconscious sexual and aggressive drives, libido energy that he o The centerpiece of the 2 or 3 year olds psychosocial experience is the struggle to attain a certain degree of autonomy, freedom, believed was derived from sexual desires. independence, mastery of self to avoid humiliation, shame, In each stage, the libido expresses itself through a particular zone of the doubt. body, called an EROGENOUS ZONE. o Toilet training is important not so much as an expression of the libido but as an achievement of self-mastery and control. Eriksons major innovation was to take Freuds psychosexual stages of o The second chapter of life is independence, self-mastery, self- the libido and transform them into a developmental model of control and the avoidance of humiliation. psychosocial tasks. o Each stage is defined by a polarity in which a positive feature Third Stage (PHALLIC STAGE) (INITIATIVE VS. GUILT of the stage is pitted against a negative feature. Erikson) The conflict must be addressed before the individual may move to the o Between 3 to 5 years next stage. o Children becomes fascinated with their own sex organs, and become overtly curious about sexual practices among adults. First stage of Development for Freud (ORAL STAGE) (TRUST VS. o During this stage, children may begin masturbating. MISTRUST Erikson) o Libido is expressed through the mouth. o Children may unconsciously experience sexual feelings toward one parent and aggressive feeling toward another at this time. o The infant experiences sensual pleasure in sucking the o OEDIPUS COMPLEX (story of a Greek young man who mothers breast and other oral activities. unwittingly killed his father and slept with his mother. o Sucking held psychological significant of establishing a bond between the caregiver and the infant and providing a model for o Initiative and guilt is the basic psychosocial issue for the preschool boy or girl. later relationships in life. o She becomes the childs first human love object. www.notesolution.com
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