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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

CHAPTER 2 Paradigms & shit A paradigm is a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject, how to gather and interpret data, even how to think about a particular subject. Essentially, a paradigm is a set of basic rules, or guidelines scientists follow when they are doing research etc. to try and be objective in their studies and so that people studying the same thing will be doing their research in the same format because they are committed to the same rules as their co-scientists. Main paradigms being discussed are biological, psychoanalytic, humanistic and existential, learning, and cognitive. Biological Paradigm The biological paradigm follows the somatogenic hypothesis, that mental disorders are caused by aberrant biological processes. This is also referred to as the medical model or disease model. - Dominant paradigm from late 1800s to early 20 in Canada and elsewhere - Ex. Hall and his ovary removal to cure mental illness. Contemporary (Modern) approaches to biological paradigm Behavior Genetics and Biochemistry Behavior Genetics - Study of difference in behavior due in part to differences in genetic make-up - Genotype is unobservable genetic constitution, Phenotype is observable trait - The environment effects the Phenotype, someone with a genetically high IQ might not be smart due to the environment they were raised in. - Even if someone is genetically predosed to develop schizophrenia or anxiety disorders, they may not depending on the environment in which they were brought up. - A predisposition (diathesis) may be inherited, but not the disorder itself There are 4 basic methods in behavior genetics that tell us if something has a predisposition: family method, twin method, adoptee method and linkage analysis. Family Method - people who share 50% of their genes with someone is known as a first degree relative. - Family method studies genetic predisposition cuz average number of genes shared by 2 blood relatives is known. - 25% of gene share known as second degree relatives www.notesolution.com
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