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Psychology (9,699)
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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Notes

12 Pages

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

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CHAPTER 8 Abnormal Psychology: chapter 8: Psychophysiological Disorders and Health Psychology Psychophysiological disorders: i.e. Asthma, hypertension, headache, and gastritis are characterized by physical symptoms that are caused by or worsened by emotional factors Previously referred to as - psychosomatic disorders Psychophysiological disorders involve damage to body people can die from psychologically induced symptoms such as high blood pressure etc In DSM IV just listed as other conditions that my be a focus of clinical attention Implication that psychophysiological disorders not form of mental disorder New thought any disease can be influenced by physiological factor stress The diagnosis of psychological factors affecting medical conditions includes cases in which the psychological or behavioral factor influences that course of treatment of a disorder not just cases in which it influences the onset broadening definition Person with hypertension will continue drinking alcohol while knowing it increases blood pressure Psychologicalbehavioral factors include personality styles holding anger in etc. Lab animals stress induced diseases recently found broader range of disease stress rel. sklar, anisman tumour in mice grew more rapidly under stress electric shock Role of psychological factors in health form the basis for the fields of behavioural medicine and health psychology Health psychology focus on prevention 45% of deaths CVD in nature, leading cause of death in Canada involves peoples lifestyle choicesbehaviors - prevention Clinicians in health psychology use variety of procedures with goal of altering bad habits, distressed psych state and aberrant physiological processes etc. Stress and Health Concept of stress: previously defined as some environmental condition that triggers psychopathology Term stress: Hans Selye general adaptation syndrome 8.1 Interested in the general syndrome of being sick Noticed that organisms exposed to diverse stimuli (trauma, cold, heat etc.) often exhibit a similar non-specific response stress non-specific response of body to demand for change www.notesolution.com General adaptation syndrome (GAS) biological response to sustained and unrelenting physical stress ~ 3 phases of model Phase 1: alarm reaction, autonomic nervous system activated by stress if stress too powerful gastrointestinal ulcers, enlarged adrenal glands and thymus undergoes atrophy Phase 2: resistance organism adapts to stress through available coping mech. length of resistance depends on adaptability and intensity of stressor Phase 3: if stressor persists or organism unable to respond effectively exhaustion death or irreversible damage Distinction bw + and forms of stress distress and eustress Realization that instead of stress use strain Selyes concept used by others modifications Some researchers followed response to enviro condition Problem with response based definition criteria are not clear-cut physiological changes in body can occur in response to number of stimuli that we would not consider stressful Other researchers looked at stress as stimulus rather than response stressor environmental conditions shock, boredom Can be major, minor, acute or chronic Psychogenic stressors psychological factors Neurogenic stressors physical stimulus Stressors can be controllableuncontrollable, predictableunpredictable, short in duration or chronic and intermittent or recurring Different stressors have different physiological implications chronic, intermittent and unpredictable stressors are less likely to result in neurochemical adaptation while intense and prolonged demands on neurochemical system may create a condition allostatic load variety of pathological outcomes Problem: what constitutes a stressor? Marriage is a stressor positive event People vary widely in how they respond to life challenges Some emphasize cognitive aspects of stress way we perceive and appraise environment determines if a stressor is present when demands exceed resources stress Concept of coping: how people deal with a problem or handle the emotions it produces effects of stress vary depending on how individual copes with event Lazarus 2 coping methods: Problem focused coping: taking direct action to solve problem controllable stressor Emotion focused coping: reduce the negative emotional reactions of stress uncontrollable str. Lazarus: stress not solely due to situation or persons cognitive appraisals or coping response but also from transaction or interaction between situational factors and factors inside person www.notesolution.com
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