Textbook Notes (367,754)
Canada (161,370)
Psychology (9,685)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Notes

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 16 - Ageism- discrimination against any person, young or old, based on chronological age-when old people are stigmatized for being old- ignores the diversity among people in favour of employing stereotypes - Dementia is a progressive disorder - There have been some new programs put forth to help elders recently and because of the rise of the baby boomers that will be aging, these programs are important as well as preventive interventions and coefficient treatments - There has been some education for health professionals while they study, about geriatrics but there are still few people committed primarily to their needs- doctors cant identify older patients with psychological problems, and can identify younger patients better- less likely to refer the patient for psychological help or treatment and they said psychotherapy was less effective for older patients - Old= people over 65 - Young old- 65 to 74 - Old- old- 75- 84 - Oldest- old- 85 years and older - The people 65 years and older are increasing over the years, the old- old is growing by 3.5% per year - Age effects- consequences of being given a chronological age - Cohort effects- consequences of having been born in a given year and having grown up during a particular time period with its own unique pressures, problems, challenges, and opportunities - Time- of measurement effects- confounds that arise because events at an exact point in time can have a specific effect on a variable being studied over time - Cross- sectional studies- investigatore compares different age groups at te same moment in time on the variable of interest- statements about age effects in a particular study - Longitudinal studies- select one cohort and periodically retests it using same measure over a number of years- allows to trace individual pattenrs of consistency or change over time- cohort effects- and analyze how behaviour in early life relates to behaviour in old age- BUT there is often selective mortality with this- participants often drop out- the people left are usually healthier - DSM- IV assesses adults and elders relatively the same but its hard to determine whether symptoms are physiological or psychological - Measure of cognitive functioning is often included in practise to determine whether they have impaired cognition - Mini mental state examination- MMSE- brief measure of individuals cognitive state, orientation, memory, and attention.. ability to name, follow verbal ad written commands, write a sentence spontaneously and copy a complex polygon - Simple measures like drawing the hands of the clock can tell if they have Alzeimers or dementia - Different assessments for the elderly to see depression or other thoughts that elerly have - Elderly people suffer from being old and being mentally ill- double jeopardy - DEMENTIA- GRADUAL DETERIORATION OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES TO THE POINT THAT SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL FUNCTIONS ARE IMPAIRED- difficulty remembering things, especially recent events, is more prominent symptoms - There is no coming back from a dementic disorder; the syndrome cannot be diagnosed on the first occasion you see a patitent - As noted by the DSM, we have a set of diagnostic criteria www.notesolution.com - We see the person over time gradually - We have to see the progressive deterioration, and later on we will see progressive neurobiological deterioration o Forget to do things, forget names of children, poor hygiene, forget how to bathe or dress, get lost in familiar settings o Faulty judgment and difficulty in comprehending situations and making decisions o Lose control over their impulses, use coarse language, inappropriate jokes, or shoplift o Abstract thinking, and disturbances in emotion, depression, flat- affect, sporadic emotional outbursts o Language disturbances, vague patterns of speech o Difficulty in motor activities, such as doing ADLs and IADLs o Trouble recognizing familiar surroundings, and DELIRIUM MAY OCCUR o May be progressing, static, remitting, depending on the case- people with progressive demetia may become withdrawn and apathetic, personality loses its sparkle, not theirself anymore, social involvement lessens, oblivious to surroundings o PREVALENCE INCREASES WITH ADVANCING AGE o The numbers of people with alzheimers will be increasing in the years to come - Some may have early memory problem,s and others may have motor problems; by way of addressing these neuropsychological symptoms, one can diagnose these symptoms o Memory o Naming deficits; visual spacial impairments Four major goals of the Canadian Study of Health and aging: 1) to use a common research protocol to estimate prevalence of dementia in Canadians age 65 and older: 8 PERCENT IN CANADA, theres 16.8 percent over 65 tha have cofnitive impairment but no dementia- cognitive impairment in absence of dementia SUBCLINICAL DEMENTIA, still involves the need for institutional care and subclinical dementia predicts negative outcomes such as death and dementia over 5 years 2) identify risk factors associated with AD- confirmed risk factors for Ad was FAMILY HISTORY OF AD, HEAD TRAUMA AND LOW EDUCATION 3) examine patterns of caring for Canadians with dementia- HALF DEMENTIAS ARE IN HOSPI 0TAL AND HALF ARE IN COMMUNITY RESIDENTS- WIVES CARRY OUT CARE IN COMMUNITY AND DAUGHTERS CARRY OUT CARE IN HOSPITALS 4) develop uniform database for subsequent longitudinal investigations- THERE ARE OVER 60 000 NEW CASES OF DEMENTIA EACH YEAR 5) HAVING GREAT CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, LOWER MMSE SCORS AND IDENTIFICATION OF MEMORY DIFFICULTIES BY CAREGIVERS ARE RISK FACTORS FOR DEMENTIA Causes of Dementia- o Alzheimers disease Accounts for 50% of dementias in older people- 113 people over 65 have dementias Brain tissue deteriorates irreversibly, and death usually occurs 10-12 years after symptoms start Women with AD live longer than men with AD but die more than man with AD Concentration, memory loss, irritable, interferes with daily living Deficits in learning and memory are there for people who will later develop the www.notesolution.com
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