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Chapter 6-8

Definitions Midterm 2 (Ch.6-8,10,14).doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter Definitions – Midterm 2 Chapter 6 Acute Stress Disorder: new in DSM-IV, a short-lived anxiety reaction to a traumatic event; if it lasts more than a month, it is diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder Agoraphobia: a cluster of fears centring on being in open spaces and leaving the home. It is often linked to panic disorder Anxiety: an unpleasant feeling of fear an apprehension accompanied by increased physiological around. In learning theory, it is considered a drive that mediates between a threatening situation and avoidance behaviour. Anxiety can be assessed by self-report, by measuring physiological arousal, and by observing overt behaviour Anxiety Disorders: disorders in which fear or tension is overriding and the primary disturbance: phobic disorders, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, acute stress disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. These disorders form a major category in DSM-IV and cover most of what used to be referred to as the neuroses Anxiety Sensitivity: a cognitive preoccupation that involves a fear of fear itself and this contributes to a heightened sense of panic Anxiolytics: tranquilizers; drugs that reduce anxiety Autonomic Lability: tendency for the autonomic nervous system to be easily aroused Compulsion: the irresistible impulse to repeat an irrational act over and over again Depersonalization: an alteration in perception of the self in which the individual loses a sense of reality and feels estranged from the self and perhaps separated from the body. It may be a temporary reaction to stress and fatigue or part of panic disorder, depersonalization disorder, or schizophrenia Derealization: loss of the sense that the surroundings are real; present in several psychological disorders, such as panic disorder, depersonalization disorder, and schizophrenia Flooding: a behaviour therapy procedure in which a fearful person is exposed to what is frightening, in reality or in the imagination, for extended periods of time and without opportunity for escape Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): anxiety that is so chronic, persistent, and pervasive that it seems free-floating. The individual is jittery and strained, distractible, and worried that something bad is about to happen. A pounding heart, fast pulse and breathing, sweating, flushing, muscle aches, a lump in the throat, and an upset gastrointestinal tract are some of bodily indications of this extreme anxiety Homework: between session learning that typically involves getting practice in engaging in specific behaviours or thoughts In Vivo Exposure: an exercise at home that requires the phobic person to be exposed to the highly feared stimulus or situation Obsessions: an intrusive and recurring though that seems irrational and uncontrollable to the person experiencing it Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): an anxiety disorder in which the mind is flooded with persistent and uncontrollable thoughts or the individual is compelled to repeat certain acts again and again causing significant distress and interference with everyday functioning Panic Disorder: an anxiety disorder in which the individual has sudden and inexplicable attacks of jarring symptoms, such as difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, dizziness, trembling, terror, and feelings of impending doom. In DSM-IV, it is said to occur with or without agoraphobia Phobia: an anxiety disorder in which there is intense fear and avoidance of specific objects and situations, recognized as irrational by the individual Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): an anxiety disorder in which a particularly stressful event, such as military combat, rape, or a natural disaster, bring in its aftermath intrusive, re- experiencings of the trauma, a numbing of responsiveness to the outside world, estrangement from others, a tendency to be easily startles, and nightmares, recurrent dreams, and otherwise disturbed sleep Prospective Memory: the ability to look forward and to remember to perform a required or intended action at the right place or time Retrospective Memory: the ability to remember recent events and experiences that have already occurred Social Phobias: a collection of fears linked to the presence of other people Specific Phobias: an unwarranted fear and avoidance of a specific object or circumstance; for example, fear of non-poisonous snakes or fear of heights Vicarious Learning: learning by observing the reactions of others to stimuli or by listening to what they say Virtual Reality (VR) Exposure: a treatment for phobias using computer-generated graphics and sound to construct an experience similar to one that a client fears Chapter 7 Anesthesias: a loss of impairment of sensation that may be experienced by a person with a conversion disorder Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD): a somatoform disorder marked by preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance; for example, facial wrinkles or excess facial or body hair Conversion Disorder: a somatoform disorder in which sensory or muscular functions are impaired, usually suggesting neurological disease, even though the bodily organs themselves are sound; anaesthesias and paralyses of limbs are examples. To be distinguished from malingering, in which actual impairment does not exist Depersonalization Disorder: an alteration in perception of the self in which the individual loses a sense of reality and feels estranged from the self and perhaps separated from the body. It may be a temporary reaction to stress and fatigue or part of panic disorder, depersonalization disorder, or schizophrenia Dissociative Amnesia: a dissociative disorder in which the person suddenly becomes unable to recall important personal information to an extent that cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness Dissociative Disorders: disorders in which the normal integration of consciousness, memory, or identity is suddenly and temporarily altered; dissociative amnesia,, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality), and depersonalization disorder are examples Dissociative Fugue: a disorder in which the person experiences total amnesia, then moves and establishes a new identity Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): a rare dissociative disorder in which two or more fairly distinct and separate personalities are present within the same individual, each with his or her own memories, relationships, and behaviour patterns, with only one of them dominant at any given time. Formerly called “multiple personality disorder” Factitious Disorder: a disorder in which the individual’s physical or psychological symptoms appear under voluntary control and are adopted merely to assume the role of a sick person. The disorder can also involve a parent producing a disorder in a child and is then called “factitious disorder by proxy” or “Munchausen syndrome by proxy” Hypochondriasis: a somatoform disorder in which the person, misinterpreting rather ordinary physical sensations, is preoccupied with dears of having a serious disorder Hysteria: a disorder known to the ancient Greeks in which a physical incapacity- a paralysis, an anaesthesia, or an analgesia- is not due to a physiological dysfunction; for example, glove anaesthesia. It is an older term for “conversion disorder.” In the late nineteenth century, dissociative disorders were identified as such and considered hysterical states La Belle Indiffrence: the blasé attitude people with conversion disorder have toward their symptoms Malingering: faking a physical or psychological incapacity in order to avoid a responsibility or gain an end; the goal is readily recognized from the individual’s circumstances. To be distinguished from conversion disorder, in which the incapacity is assumed to be beyond voluntary control Pain Disorder: a somatoform disorder in which the person complains of severe and prolonged pain that is not explainable by organic pathology; it tends to be stress-related or permits the client to avoid an aversive activity or to gain attention and sympathy Somatization Disorder: a somatoform disorder in which the person continually seeks medical help for recurrent and multiple physical symptoms that have no discoverable physical cause. The medical history is complicated and dramatically presented. Difficult to distinguish from hypochondriasis Somatoform Disorder: disorders in which physical symptoms suggest a physical problem but have no known physiological cause; they are therefore believed to be linked to psychological conflicts and needs but not voluntarily assumed. Examples are Somatization disorder (Briquet’s syndrome), conversion disorder, pain disorder, and hypochondriasis Chapter 8 Altruistic Suicide: as defined by Durkheim, self-annihilation that the person feels will serve a social purpose, such as the self-immolations practiced by Buddhist monks during the Vietnam War Anomic Suicide: as defined by Durkheim, self-annihilation triggered by a person’s inability to cope with sudden and unfavourable chance in a social situation Attribution: the explanation a person has for his or her behaviour Autonomy: a personality style associated with vulnerability to depression. It involves a need to work toward achievement goals while being free from constraints imposed by others Bilateral ECT: electroconvulsive therapy in which electrodes are placed on each side of the forehead and an electrical current is passed between them through both hemispheres of the brain Bipolar I Disorder: a disorder in which people experience episodes of both mania and depression or of mania alone Bipolar II Disorder: a disorder in which people experience episodes of major depression followed by a type of manic phase that is less severe than in bipolar I disorder Brooding: a moody contemplation of depressive symptoms- “What am I doing to deserve this?”- that is more common in females than males Congruency Hypothesis: the prediction that people are likely to be depressed if they have a personality vulnerability that is matched by congruent life events (e.g. perfectionists who experience a failure to achieve). It is derived from research on personality stress, and depression Cyclothymic Disorder: chronic swings between elation and depression not severe enough to warrant the diagnosis of bipolar disorder Dependency: a personality style associated with vulnerability to depression. It involves excessive levels of dependency on others Depression: a disorder marked by great sadness and apprehension, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, withdrawal from others, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities, and either lethargy or agitation. Called “major depression” in DSM-IV and “unipolar depression” by others. It can be an associated symptom of other disorders Depressive Paradox: a cognitive tendency for depressed individuals to accept personal responsibility for negative outcomes despite feeling a lack of personal control Depressive Predictive Certainty: the concept that people become prone to depression when they perceive that an anticipated state of helplessness is certain to occur. It is derived from the hopelessness theory of depression Double Depression: a comorbid condition that applies to someone characterized by both dysthymia and major depression Dysthymic Disorder: state of depression that is long-lasting but not severe enough for the diagnosis of major depression Egoistic Suicide: as defined by Durkheim, self-annihilation committed because the individ
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