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PSYB32H3 (1,174)


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Mark Schmuckler

Developmental Psychology Chapter 10 - Intelligence and Achievement Theories of Intelligence - three primary issues - first - whether intelligence has many components and whether it predicts aca- demic success in school and success outside of school - today generally accepted that intelligence is multifaceted - both genetic and environmentally influenced - second - whether heredity is more influential than environmental factors - and degree to which inherited factors can be altered by environment - third - how important intelligence is to predicting children’s and adult’s success in school and in real-life situations - intelligence composed of multiple abilities and not a single, general construct - factor analysis - a statistical procedure used to determine which of a number of fac- tors or scores are both closely related to each other and relatively independent of other groups of factors or scores - existence of general factor of cognitive ability - derived from Spearman’s original general factor (g) (proposed) - using factor analysis - general mental energy or ability that is involved in all cognitive tasks - high g expected to do generally well on all tasks - specific factors (s) - unique to particular cognitive tasks - proposed by Spearman - children may vary both in overall intellectual power and in their proficien- cy in specific aspects of cognitive functioning - variations on performance on some tasks can be attributed to s - Lewis Thurston - challenged unitary concept - proposed that seven primary skills comprise intelligence - verbal meaning - perceptual speed - reasoning - number - rote memory - word fluency - spatial visualization - Carroll - confirmed existence of a general factor of cognitive ability - people who do well on one kind of cognitive test likely to do well on other test Developmental Psychology Chapter 10 - Intelligence and Achievement - individuals still vary in competence across different domains - such as vocabulary knowledge, basic mathematical skills, ability to dis- criminate musical pitch - children vary both in overall level of intellectual ability and how skilled they are in spe- cific aspects of cognitive functioning Information-Processing Approach - focus on processes involved in intellectual activity - to understand intelligence, must assess how individuals use information-processing capabilities to carry out intelligent tasks - Sternberg - triarchic theory of intelligence - theory that proposes three major components of intelligent behaviour - information processing skills - required to encode, store, and retrieve varying kinds of information - experience with a particular situation - considers how much exposure and practice an individual has had with a particular intellectual task - ability to adapt to the demands of a context - recognizes that intelligence cannot be separated from the situation in which it is used - must be able both to adapt to the requirements of a situation and to select and arrange situations to meet their own abilities and needs - one dimension on which the intelligence of a particular behaviour can be measured is its suitability and effectiveness in a particular setting - theory of successful intelligence - ability to fit into, mold, and choose environments that best fulfill the de- mands of one’s society and culture and one’s own needs and desires - includes - analytical - include those taught and tested in most schools and universities - such as reasoning about the best answer to a test question Developmental Psychology Chapter 10 - Intelligence and Achievement - creative - involved in devising new ways of addressing con- cerns - practical abilities - used in everyday activities - such as work, family life, and social and pro- fessional interactions - tactic - implicit knowledge that is shared by many people and that guides behaviour - applications of Sternberg’s triarchic theory to school curricula have shown success - in helping children learn academic material - helping adolescents improve scores in examinations - enjoy material more than children taught the same information in a traditional fashion Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences - proposes 8 different types of intelligence - linguistic - sensitivity to word meanings - master of syntax - appreciation of the ways language can be used - logical-mathematical - understanding of objects, symbols, the actions that can be performed on them - interrelations among these actions - ability to operate in the abstract - identify problems and seek explanations - spatial - accurate perception of visual world - ability to transform perceptions and mentally recreate visual experience - sensitivity to tension, balance and composition - ability to detect similar patterns - musical - sensitivity to musical tones and phrases - ability to combine tones and phrases into larger rhythms and structures - awareness of music’s emotional aspects Developmental Psychology Chapter 10 - Intelligence and Achievement - bodily kinesthetic - skilled and
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