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Chapter 14

PSYB32 - Chapter 14.doc

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Mark Schmuckler

Chapter 14 Sexual and Gender Identity DisordersSexual and gender identity disorder full range of human sexual thoughts feelings and actions that are generally regarded as abnormal and dysfunctional Gender Identity DisorderGender Identity Disorder Sexual identityour sense of ourselves as male or femaleSexual Orientationour preference for the sex of a partnerCharacteristics of Gender Identity Disorder GIDTranssexualismpeople with gender identity disorders are sometimes referred to as this they feel deep within themselves usually from early childhood that they are of the opposite sexTransvestismcrossdress for sexual pleasure but do not identify themselves as of opposite sex GIDNOSThey may want to pass as a member of the opposite sex or even have surgery GID is different from GIDNOS gender identity disorder not otherwise since that involves symptoms that meet GID but there are some symptoms that do notIn childhoodassociated with crossgender behavioursdressing in oppositesex clothes preferring oppositesex playmates and engaging in play that would be more typical of the opposite sexThey are usually recognized by their parents at age 24GID is 66x more frequent in boys than girlsSocial factors associated with disorder and many factors determine decision to seek clinical assessmentBelief that the behaviour was no longer a phase that the child would grow out ofThreshold violation wanting to dress certain way outside of home alsoBelief that the child was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or girlConcerns about potential or actual rejection by peersMost children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood even without professional intervention many demonstrate homosexual orientationGID people often experience anxiety and depressionGID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorderPrevalence rate130000 men1100000150000 womenCauses of Gender Identity DisorderMore information is needed on the cause of GID in order to resolve this debateEvidence indicates that gender identity is influenced by hormonesOther research shows that human and other primate offspring of mothers who have taken sex hormones during pregnancy frequently behave like members of the opposite sex and have anatomical abnormalitiesor they necessarily do not have abnormal gender identity but they sometimes did exhibit some crosssex behavioursBrain structures differences are also being investigatedEnvironment may play a huge factor as well male patients report having distant relationships with their fathers females often report history of physicalsexual abuseTherapies for Gender Identity DisorderThere are 2 main typesone attempts to alter the body to suit the persons psychologythe other is designed to alter the psychology to match the persons bodyBody AlterationsPrior to body alterations the person is required to go through 612 months of psychotherapyThe therapy focuses on anxietydepression as well as options available to the person on altering their bodySome people may chose just to have cosmetic surgery facial hair Adams apple removal etc and take hormone pillsSex reassignment surgery an operation in which the existing genitalia are altered to make them more like those of the opposite sex femaletomale surgery were more successful than maletofemaleIt is much more frequently exercised by men than by womenPreoperative factors that resulted in postsurgery success was based onChapter 14 SexualGender Identity DisordersPage 5
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