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Chapter 7

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 7SomatoformDissociative Disorders somatoform and dissociative disorders are related to anxiety disorders somatoform disordersindividual complains of bodily symptoms that suggest a physical defect or dysfunctionsometimes rather dramatic in naturebut for which no physiological bases can be founddissociative disordersindividual experiences disruptions of consciousness memory and identity onset of both disorders is assumed by many to be related to some stressful experience and the two classes sometimes cooccurSOMATOFORM DISORDERS in somatoform disorders psychological problems take a physical form the physical symptoms have no known physiological explanation and are not under voluntary controlthey are thought to be linked to psychological factorspain disorderperson experiences pain that causes significant distress and impairment psychological factors are viewed as playing an important role in the onset client may be unable to work and may become dependent on painkillers or tranquilizers pain may allow the individual to avoid some unpleasant activity and to secure attention and sympathy not otherwise available accurate diagnosis is difficult because the subjective experience of pain is always a psychologically influenced phenomenon therefore deciding when a pain becomes a somatoform pain is difficult there is a positive associated between reports of pain symptoms and diagnoses of several of the anxiety disorders or depression pain disorder has been researched as a discrete Axis I disorder body dysmorphic disorder BDDa person is preoccupied with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance frequently in the face some clients may spend hours each day checking on their defect or others take steps to avoid being reminded of the defect by eliminating mirrors or by camouflaging the defectloose clothesBDD occurs mostly among women and begins in late adolescence and is frequently comorbid with depression and social phobia eating disorders thoughts of suicide and substance use and personality disordershypochondriasisindividuals are preoccupied with persistent fears of having a serious disease despite medical reassurance to the contrary typically begins in early adulthood people with hypochondriasis are more likely to attribute physical sensations to an illnessand make catastrophic interpretations of symptoms health anxiety is defined as healthrelated fears and beliefs based on interpretations or perhaps more often misinterpretations of bodily symptoms as being indicative of serious illnesshealth anxiety would be present in both hypochondriasis and an illness phobia hypochondriasis is a fear of having an illness an illness phobia is a fear of contracting an illness1
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