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Child Psychch1.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

Child Psych-Ch1 Child development: identifies and describes changes in a child’s cognitive, emotional, motor and social capacities and behaviors from conception until adolescence (WHAT things change). It also uncovers the process that underlies these changes to help explain how and why they occur. (HOW they came about) Charles Darwin-research on infants sensory capacities and young children’s emotions John B Watson-formal analysis of children’s learning capacities. Freud and Piaget- our understanding of children Mark Baldwin- established first laboratory on British lands at U of T. work on mental health Why should we know child development? Help society protect well being of children as well as shape the social policy on behalf of children. Themes of development Biological versus environmental influences -both biological and environmental factors influence human development -researcher Gesell described it as only biological factors influencing the development. Focused on maturation: a genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a good period of time -watson focused on environmental factors as having an effect. -both nature and nurture interact to produce developmental variations in different children -socializing agents such as parents, peers or teachers do no only mold the child, but the children actively influence and modify the actions of their parents and other people whom they interact Continuity versus discontinuity -some view development as a continous process where new events build on earlier experiences -smooth and gradual accumulation of abilities Ex: process of learning how to swim. Continuous improvement -those who view development as discontinuous likens development to a series of discrete steps or stages in which behaviors get reorganized into a qualitatively new set of behaviors ex: a tadpole to a frog specific stages -most child development researchers see development as continuous but can sometimes see periods of change Individual characteristics versus cultural influences -some researchers involve the interactionist viewpoint where there is a dual role of individual and contextual factors Risks to healthy development and individual resilience -this is about how different children respond when they are confronted with situational challenges or risks to healthy development -many seem to suffer permanent development disruptions, some show the sleeper effect where they deal then are later on affect and others are just resilient and deal completely. ** how do children deal with disruptions in development? Some can suffer permanent development causes because they don’t know how to deal with it, others may show sleeper effect, where it doesn’t influence them until later on in life, and others may be fully capable of dealing with it right on spot so it doesn’t have an effect Researching across cultures -examining child development across cultures provides info about variation in the range of human potential and expression that may emerge in different circumstances of growth. Ex: in some cultures children learn to walk at a certain age, in others children are carried for longer periods of time which reduces their chances to walk until they are older. -It depends on the individual but at the same time the context they are in All development that occurs happens in each child, but it depends on the environment and people that influence the child, that will determine how early, or how late and the rate at which they are developing. Ex culture is a big influence* Theoretical perspectives on development Theories help organize and integrate existing information into coherent and interesting accounts of how children develop. They also generate a testable hypotheses or predictions about children’s behavior. Today a lot of developmental psychologists mix and match different concepts of different theories to come up with new ones to explain their observations. Structural organismic perspective -structuralism: Freud and Piaget -freud was interested in emotions and personality and piaget in thinking -they came up with the structural-organismic perspective: organisms goo through organized or structured series of stages or discontinuous changes over the course of development -they saw the stages as universal meaning that all humans went through these specific stages no matter how they` developed. Psychodynamic theory -introduced by Freud -the developing personality consist of 3 interelated parts: id,ego, superego -id: which is composed of our instinctual drives -ego: consists of the rational and reality bound aspect and attempts to gratify needs through socially appropriate behavior -superego: accepts and absorbs parental societal morals and values and roles. Development of a conscience or the ability to apply moral values to her own acts -with these he came up with 5 stages where children undergo through the personality steps 1.oral (0-1years): focus on eating sucking and biting. All around the mouth 2. anal (1-3yrs): emphasis on toilet training. learning how to control the sphincter. Discipline and authority come into play where the parent makes them learn to sit on the toilet. 3. phallic (3-6years): increase in sexual urges. Learn gender differences. They learn my parts are different than yours.oedipus complex superego problem can’t be physically seen and so cant be tested 4. latency (6-12years): sexual urges are suppressed and they are in school and focus on that and others around them. 5. genital (20+ years): focus on reproduction and love. The way in which children negotiate the oral, anal and phallic stages has a profound impact on emotional development and the adult personality. These stages influence later life -erik erikson was among ones that followed freuds theory -he established the psychosocial theory where development is seen as proceeding through a series of eight stages that unfold across the lifespan -each stge is characterized by the personal and social tasks that the individual must accomplish as well as the risks that come if they are not accomplished Piagetian Theory -based on 3 basic principles of biology and biological change: organization and adaptation -the child’s understanding of the world changes in an organized way over the course of development -intellectual change occurs as the human mind becomes adapted to the world Infants: rely on their sensory and motor abilities to learn about the world Preschool children: rely more on mental structures and symbols-language Children: rely more on logic Adolescence: can reason about abstract ideas Learning perspectives problem** they play down the role of biological factors Behaviorism -watson, Pavlov and skinner -it focuses quite simply on the learning of behaviors -watson used Pavlovs classical conditioning to explain many aspects of children’s behavior such as fear. Ex: got a infant to be scared of furry animals by introducing it to a rat. -operant conditioning was also applied to children’s behavior -it has been incorporated into many applied programs to help teachers and parents change children’s behavior (reinforcement and punishment) Cognitive social learning theory -children learn not only through classical and operant conditioning but also by observing and imitating others.ex: BOBO doll experiment -four cognitive processes govern how well a child will learn by observing another person 1.the child must attend to a model’s behavior 2.child must retain the observed behavior in memory 3. child must have the capacity to reproduce the observed behavior 4. child must be motivated to reproduce the behavior. Information-processing approaches -focus on the flow of information through the cognitive system beginning with input or stimulus ending with an output or response. -output may be in the form of an action, decision or simply a memory that is stored for later use -a child ATTENDS to info, CHANGES it into a mental or cognitive representation, STORES it in memory, COMPARES it with other memories, GENERATES various responses, makes a DECISION about the most appropriate response, then takes specific ACTION. -This can be used to understand how children develop to understand reading, math and science. ACS CG DA A: OH WOW INFO C:lemme make this cognitive info S: let me store this into my memory C: which memories should I chose? G: this one? Okay I have these options D: alright which one do I pic A: we’ve got an answer let’s do this ish Dynamic systems perspectives -individuals and their achievements can be understood and interpreted within the framework of the interacting components of the system -how the child, as a biological and psychological system, functions and grows in a physical world that both supports and challenges her development -how the child development arises from the system as a whole, not from any single factor Dynamic systems explains that there are many processes and functions that play a role in dev, epigenetic framework- how changes in environment and genetics help in the dev of who a child becomes Contextual perspectives Sociocultural theory problem** don’t explain how they shape their own eviron, just how they learn -places particular emphasis on the impact of social and cultural experience on child development -proposed by Vygotsky -child’s development is best understood in relation to social and cultural experience -social interaction is seen as a critical force in development -through the assistance provided by more experience people in the social environment, the child gradually learns to function intellectually on her own -individual cognitive development -there is a variation in development -the ways in which adults support and direct child development are influenced by culture The child development in sociocultural is influenced by both the environment and the assistance of someone who is more experienced. They guide the child in the rights ways we don’t know how the childs guides himself which is a critical factor in child dev* Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory -stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationship between the organism, but also the relations among the environmental systems themselves -bronfenbrenner provides a framework that describes the layers or environmental or contextual systems that influence child development -microsystem: setting in which the child lives and interacts with the people and institutions closest to him ex: parents -mesosystem: comprises interelaitons among the components of the microsystem ex: parents interact with teachers -exosystem: is composed of settings that impinge on a child’s development but with which the child has largely indirect contact ex: a parents work -macrosystem: represents the ideological and institutional patterns of a particular culture or subculture -chronosystem: the four systems change over time, -for brofenbrenner development involves the interaction of a changing child with the changing ecological context in all of its complexity Lifespan perspective they go wayyy back, age cohort
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