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Chapter 6

Study Guide of Chapter 6 for PSYB32

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Chapter 6: Anxiety Disorders unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension are diagnosed when subjectively experienced feelings of anxiety are clearly present DSM has 6 categories for 1. Phobia 2. Panic Disorders 3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder 4. Obsessive-Compulsive disorder 5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 6. Acute Stress Disorder anxiety disorder may give rise to other disorders this co-morbidity has two reasons One Symptoms of various disorders are not disorder specific such as fast heart rate they are seen in Panic, PTSD and phobia Two the etiological factors that give rise to anxiety disorder is applicable to other disorder 16 percent of women and 9 percent men suffer from anxiety disorder mostly found in women 15 to 24 years of age Phobias fear and avoidance of objects or situations that do not present danger causing sufficient distress to disrupt ones life causing social or occupational impairment 5% women incapacitated by their phobia in Calgary claustraphobia: fear of closed spaces agoraphobia: fear of public places acrophobia: fear of heights ergasiophobia: fear of writing pnigophobia: fear of choking taphephobia: fear of being buried alive Anglophobia: fear of England psychoanalyst focus on content of phobia and see object of phobia as a symbol of unconscious fear Freud diagnosed a boy Hans who was afraid of a horse and declared that the boys fear of his father was transformed to the horse Behaviorists focus on function rather then content, how the phobia was gained and how it can be treated Specific Phobia: fears caused by the presence or anticipation of specific object or situation DSM-4 divides these phobias into the source of the fear fears can be grouped into 5 factors 1. agoraphobia 2. fear of heights or water 3. threat fears such as blood, needle 4. fear of being observed 5. speaking fears these fears were then categorized under specific fears and social fears specific phobias = 7%men and 16%women, lifetime prevalence of 4.6% in men and 9.8% in women specific fear can vary cross culturally In china Pa-leng = fear of loss of body heat Japanese syndrome taijinkyofu -sho = fear of embarrassing others Social Phobia persistent, irrational fears linked to the presence of others avoid particular situations in which they may be evaluated can be generalized or specific depending on the range of situation feared generalized involves different interpersonal situations www.notesolution.com-------->are earlier age onset, co-modality with other disorders such as depression and alcohol abuse specific involves intense fear of one particular situation 11% in men for social phobias and 15% in women social phobias have a high co-modality with generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, panic disorder, avoidant personality disorder, mood disorder onset occurs in adolescence positive link found between social phobia and dropping out of school Etiology Psychoanalytic: Freud believed phobias are defense against anxiety that is produced by repressed id impulses anxiety is displaced from the feared id and moved to an object that has a symbolic connection by avoiding the feared object person avoids dealing with repressed conflicts phobia is egos way of warding off confrontation with the real problem in the example of Hans, Freud believed that he hadn't resolved Oedipal conflict which intensified his fear of his father putting the fear on a horse Arieti proposed that a repression stems from a interpersonal problem of childhood rather then id impulse Behavioral : focus on learning as a way of which phobias are acquired Avoidance conditioning - main behavioral account of phobias is that reactions are learned avoidance responses ---->based on a two factor theory proposed by Mowrer 1. classical conditioning a person learns to fear a stimulus (CS) when paired with a frightening event (UCS) 2. person can reduce fear by avoiding CS, second learning is operant learning in which the response is maintained by reinforcement of fear reduction possibility that some fears may be acquired little evidence that human beings can be conditioned evidence has shown that fear
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