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Study Guide of Chapter 10 for PSYB32

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Konstantine Zakzanis

CHAPTER 10 MOOD DISORDERS General Characteristics of Mood Disorders -mood disorders involve disabling disturbances in emotion from the sadness of depression to the elation and irritability of mania DEPRESSION-SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS -depression is an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guilt -additional symptoms include withdrawal from others, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire and interest and pleasure in usual activities -often associated with other psychological problems such as panic attacks, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction and personality disorders -paying attention is exhausting for people with depression and conversation becomes a chore as they will speak slowly and low voice -make numerous complaints of somatic symptoms with no apparent physical basis -depression in children results in somatic complaints such as headaches or stomach ache but in older adults, it is characterized by distractibility and complaints of memory loss -depression is less prevalent in China than in North America and this is due to cultural mores that make it less appropriate for a Chinese to display their emotional symptoms -western cultures emphasize emotional symptoms for depression while non western cultures like Chinese emphasize somatic symptoms -only 15% of depressed primary care patients in Canada are referred to as psychologizers; emphasize the psychological aspects of depression -one third of the people suffer from chronic depression MANIA-SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS -mania is an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability, hyperactivity, distractibility and impractical grandiose plans -people who experience episodic depression may become maniac at times -experiencing mania without depression is very rare -they will shift from topic to topic and the speech will be difficult to interpret and may become annoying -anything that stops them will bring anger and rage -mania comes over suddenly over a period of day or two FORMAL DIAGNOSTIC LISTINGS OF MOOD DISORDERS -two major mood disorders are listed in DSM-IV TR, major depression referred to as unipolar depression and bipolar disorder Diagnosis of Depression-formal DSM-IV TR diagnosis of a major depressive disorder (MDD) also referred to as unipolar depression requires the presence of five of the following symptoms for at least two weeks -either depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure must be one of the five symptoms sad, depressed mood, most of the day, nearly every day loss of interest pleasure in usual activites difficulties in sleeping (insomnia) www.notesolution.com shift in activity level poor appetite and weight loss or increased appetite and weight gain loss of energy, fatigue negative self concept; feel worthless and guilt complaints or evidence of difficulty in concentrating thoughts of death or suicide -major depression is one of the most prevalent disorders as rate of depression can be compare to the rates of chronic medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and thyroid problems -can also vary in culture -two times more common in women than men (only rises in adolescence) and higher rates among younger people than older persons -occurs more frequently among members of the low socioeconomic classes -girls are more likely than boys to have certain risk factors of depression even before adolescence but it is only when these risk factors interact with the challenges of adolescence, that the gender differences in depression emerge -gender differences in ruminative coping versus distraction when feelings of depression are experienced -females more likely to engage in ruminative coping as they focus their attention on their depressive symptoms while males are more likely rely on distraction; doing something that diverts their attention eg engaging in physical activity, watching tv -rumination was more common in women and is the key to the gender differences in depressive symptoms -women more likely to be involved in childhood sexual abuses and that history of abuse is a risk factor for depression -depression tends to be a recurrent disorder -12% became chronic when the disorder lasts more than two years -kindling hypothesis- nothing that once a depression has already been experiences, it takes less stress to induce a reoccurrence of another depression episode happening. Small amounts of stress can induce depression, since your body is already prone, or sensitive once before to depression. Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder-DSM-IV-TR defines bipolar disorder as involving episodes of mania or mixed episode that includes symptoms of both mania and depression -formal diagnosis of manic episode requires the presence of elevated or irritable mood plus three additional symptoms (4 if the mood is irritable). -euphoria (feeling of well being not based on reality) is not a core symptom of mania but irritable mood and depressive features are more common -the symptoms listed here must be sufficiently severe to impair social and occupational functioning increase in activity level at work, socially , sexually unusual talkativeness; rapid speech flight of ideas or subjective impression that thoughts are racing less than usual amount of sleep needed inflated self esteem; belief that one has special powers, abilities distractibility attention easily diverted excessive involvements in pleasurable activities that are likely to have undesirable consequences such as reckless spending -occurs less often than major depression with a lifetime prevalence rate of 1% of the population -average age on onset is 20s and occurs equally often in men and women www.notesolution.com
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