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Chapter 12

PSYB20 - Chapter 12 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Chapter 12 Notes/Definitions How peer interactions begin  by the time they are 3 years of age, toddles generally prefer interaction with peers to that with adults  it is not until the second half of the first year that infants begin to recognize a peer as a social partner  ages 1 & 2 – children develop complementary social interaction, ability to share meaning with a social partner  as children develop, negative exchange and conflict increase as well, toddlers who frequently initiated conflicts with peers were also the most sociable and the most likely to initiate interactions  the difference between peers and family, peers offer the perspective of equals who share common abilities, goals, and problems. But the influence is the same: modeling, reinforcement, social comparison, and by providing opportunities for learning and socializing  to reinforce is to pay attention to another’s behaviour, to praise or criticize it, or to share in it.  social comparison: the process of evaluating one’s characteristics, abilities, values, and other qualities by comparing oneself with others, usually one’s peers.  the child’s self-image and self-acceptance are closely associated with how she is received by her peers  as a basis for self-definition, the peer group is unequalled.  sociometric techniques: they ask children to rate peers on scales of aggressiveness or helpfulness or to compare peers as to likeability or to identify those whom they like best  research suggests that probably the single most significant factor is a child’s cognitive and social skills  social information processing: encode cues, interpret cues, clarify goals, review possible actions, decide on an action, act on decision. Stresses the cognitive steps in evaluating problem that a child confronts when interacting with others  being unpopular among peers can lead to both sh
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