Chapter 12 Notes/Definitions
How peer interactions begin
by the time they are 3 years of age, toddles generally prefer interaction with peers to that with
it is not until the second half of the first year that infants begin to recognize a peer as a social
ages 1 & 2 – children develop complementary social interaction, ability to share meaning with a
as children develop, negative exchange and conflict increase as well, toddlers who frequently
initiated conflicts with peers were also the most sociable and the most likely to initiate
the difference between peers and family, peers offer the perspective of equals who share
common abilities, goals, and problems. But the influence is the same: modeling, reinforcement,
social comparison, and by providing opportunities for learning and socializing
to reinforce is to pay attention to another’s behaviour, to praise or criticize it, or to share in it.
social comparison: the process of evaluating one’s characteristics, abilities, values, and other
qualities by comparing oneself with others, usually one’s peers.
the child’s self-image and self-acceptance are closely associated with how she is received by her
as a basis for self-definition, the peer group is unequalled.
sociometric techniques: they ask children to rate peers on scales of aggressiveness or
helpfulness or to compare peers as to likeability or to identify those whom they like best
research suggests that probably the single most significant factor is a child’s cognitive and social
social information processing: encode cues, interpret cues, clarify goals, review possible actions,
decide on an action, act on decision. Stresses the cognitive steps in evaluating problem that a
child confronts when interacting with others
being unpopular among peers can lead to both sh