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PSYB20 TEXTBOOK NOTES.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB20 TEXTBOOK NOTES Chapter 1  Child development: identifies and describes changes in the child’s cognitive, emotional, motor and social capacities and behaviours from the moment of conception through the period of adolescence  Maturation: genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time. Arnold Gesell believed in this  John B. Watson placed his emphasis strictly on the environment. Assumed that biological factors placed no restriction on the ways that the environment can shape the course of a child’s development  Some psychologists view development as a continuous process whereby each new event builds on earlier experience. There is a smooth and gradual accumulation of abilities  Some view it as a discontinuous development. It is seen as a series of discrete steps or stages in which behaviours get reorganized into a qualitatively new set of behaviours  Interactionist viewpoint: stressing the dual role of individual and contextual factors  Sleeper effect: cope with the problems with initially, but exhibit problems later on in life  Theories have two functions: they help organize and integrate existing info into coherent and interesting accounts of how children develop. They also generate testable hypotheses or predictions about children`s behaviour  Good theory allows one to make sense of a greater number of observations, based on the fewest number of premises and can be then used to formulate settings for the collection of new observations  Freud was interested in emotions and personalities, piaget was interested in thinking. Both had structural-organismic perspectives. They both believed that the child when through discontinuous stages over the course of development  Psychodynamic theory: emphasizes how the experiences of early childhood shape the development of adult personality  TABLE 1.1  The way in which the child negotiates the oral, anal and phallic stages has a profound impact on emotional development and the adult personality. Eg. Those that had an unsatisfied need for oral stimulation may be more likely to smoke  In Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory characterizes by the personal and social tasks that the individual must accomplish as well as the risks the individual confronts if she fails to process through the stages successfully  Piagetian theory: principle of organization reflects the view that human intellectual development is a biologically organized process. Used the principle of adaptation to describe the process by which intellectual change occurs as the human mind becomes increasingly adapted to the world  Behaviourism emphasizes the role of experience, and it’s a gradual, continuous view  Cognitive social learning theory: children learn through observing and imitating others  Four processes govern how well a child will learn by observing another person  Child must attend to a model’s behaviour  The child must retain the observed behaviours in memory  The child must have the capacity, physically and intellectually to reproduce the observed behaviours  The child must be motivated or have a reason to reproduce the behaviour  Information-processing approaches focus on the flow of info through the cognitive system, beginning with an input/stimulus and ending with an output/response  Dynamic systems theory: individuals develop and function within systems, it studies the relationships among individuals and systems and the processes by which these relationships operate  The word dynamic underscores the constant interaction and mutual influence of the elements in the system  LOOK AT TABLE 1.2; pg 14  Sociocultural theory: development is seen as evolving out of children’s interactions with more skilled others in their social environment. Eg. A tutor teachers helps the child to read, write, add and subtract. Etc.  Ecological theory: stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationships between the organism and various environmental systems but also the relations among such systems themselves  Microsystem: the context in which child live and interact with the people and institutions closest to them. Eg. Parents, peers and school  Mesosystem: interrelations that occur among the components of the microsystem with which the child interacts  Exosystem: collection of settings that impinge on a child’s development but in which the child doesn’t play a direct role. Eg. Parents work may affect the child’s life if it requires the parent to travel or work late in the night  Macrosystem: system that surrounds the above systems and represents the values, ideologies and laws of the society or culture  Chronosystem: time-based dimension that can alter the operation of all other levels, from micro to macrosystem  Lifespan perspective: incorporates historical factors that may influence psychological development  Ethological theory: behaviour must be viewed and understood as occurring in a particular context and as having adaptive or survival value. Basic method of study is the observation of children in their natural surroundings, and their goals are to develop detailed descriptions and classifications of behaviour. Eg. Child cried to catches parent’s attention when it is hungry  Evolutionary psychology have a major impact on the study of cognition and cognitive development  Look at table 1.3  Converging operations: variety of research techniques are used to investigate or converge upon a particular experimental or research result  Correlational studies describe patterns and paths as they naturally occur  Ecological validity: the degree to which a research study accurately represents events and process that occur in the natural world  Observer bias: tendency of researchers to be influenced in their judgments by their knowledge of the hypotheses guiding the research  TABLE 1.4  One advantage of longitudinal study is it allows one to study “intergenerational continuity and the transfer of psychosocial risk”  Sequential method: combines features of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Start off like a cross-sectional and collect children with different ages  TABLE 1.5 Chapter2  The ovum is the largest human cell and it about 90 000 times as heavy as the sperm that penetrates it  Autosomes: the 22 paired non-sex chromosomes  Each nucleotide contains a nitrogen base, simple sugar and phosphate group  Principle of segregation: each inherited trait comes from one’s parent as a separate unit  Principle of independent assortment: inheritance of various traits occurs independently of one another  At any given gene’s position on two homologous chromosomes, there can be more than one form of that gene. The alternative form of genes is called alleles, with one allele coming from the organism’s mother and the other from the father  Co-dominance: Two traits will combine but not blend  X-linked diseases; the recessive genes in females are expressed much less frequently because females have two X-chromosomes , have a chance of inheriting a dominant and counteracting allele on the other X chromosome  Eg. Hemophilia, a disorder in which the blood fails to clot. X-linked recessive characteristics  120 males are conceived for every 100 females and 106 males are born for every 100 females  Modifier genes: exert their influence indirectly, by affecting the expression of still other genes. Eg. Cataract; a condition in which the lens of the eyes becomes clouded, obscuring vision  TABLE 2.2  Harmful alleles survive in the heterozygous state- the person inherits both the normal and recessive allele  PKU: disease caused by a recessive allele that fails to produce an enzyme necessary to metabolize the protein phenylalanine (in milk); if untreated immediately at birth, it damaged the nervous system and causes mental retardation. Two heterozygous parents have a 1-in-4 chance of producing an infant who is homozygous for PKU  An allele on chromosome 11 is the cause of sickle cell anemia  Down syndrome births are higher for men over 40 especially if the mother  Turner syndrome: found in females, in which secondary sex characteristics develop only if female hormones are administered and in which abnormal formation of internal reproductive organs leads to permanent sterility. They remain short, stubby fingers, webbed necks and unusually shaped mouth and ears. Remain sterile for their whole lives  Klinefelter’s syndrome: male inherits an extra X sex chromosome, resulting in the XXY pattern, and has many feminine physical characteristics as well as language deficits and sometimes mental retardation  Fragile X syndrome: more common in males, X chromosome is narrowed in some areas, causing it to be fragile and leading to a variety of physical, psychological and social problems. IQ is between 30-55  Amniocentesis: technique for sampling and assessing fetal cells for indications of abnormalities in the developing fetus; performed by inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the amniotic sac and withdrawing a small amount of amniotic fluid  Chorionic villi sampling: cells withdrawn from the chorionic villi, which are projections from the chorion that surrounds the amniotic sac; cells are withdrawn either through a tube inserted through the abdominal wall  The villi are not part of the embryo itself, the chromosomes and genes in them are identical to the embryo’s because they all arise from the same fertilized egg  Gene for cystic fibrosis has been located on the midsection of chromosome 7, and gene for alzheimer’s is found on the long arm of chromosome 21. Huntington’s is found on chromosome 4  Alphafetoprotein assay: blood test performed prenatally to detect such problems as down syndrome, the presence of multiple embryos and defects of the CNS  Range of reaction: notion that the human’s genetic makeup establishes a range of possible developmental outcomes, within which environmental forces largely determine how the person actually develops  Canalization: genetic restriction of a phenotype to a small number of developmental outcomes, permitting environmental influences to play only a small role in these outcomes  Passive genetic-environmental interaction: interactive environment created by parents with particular genetic predispositions who encourage the expression of these tendencies in their children  Evocative genetic-environmental interaction: expression of the gene’s influence on the environment through an individual’s inherited tendencies to evoke certain environmental responses. Eg. Babies smile and therefore elicit a smile from adults too  Active genetic-environmental interaction: interaction in which people’s genes encourage them to seek out experience compatible with their inherited tendencies  Niche picking: seeking out or creating environments that are compatible with one’s own predispositions. Eg. Extroverted will actively seek company  Unlike biologists, behaviour geneticists can conduct their research without ever directly measuring chromosomes, DNA or genes  Heritability factors: stat estimate of the contribution made by hereditary to a particular trait or ability  Table 2.4  Temperament: individual’s typical mode of response to the environment, including such things as activity level, emotional intensity, and attention span; used to describe infants’ and children’s behaviours  The slow to warm up babies tends to respond negatively to new stimuli at first but adapts slowly to new objects or novel experiences after repeated contact with them  Table 2.6  Goodness of fit: measure of the degree to which a child’s temperament is matched by her environment. The more effectively parents accept and adapt to the child’s unique temperament, the better this “fit”  Prenatal environment and environmental factors at birth may make larger contributions than heredity to infant temperament  Plomin states that inheritance apparently contributes more to emotionality, activity level and sociability Chapter 3  Zygote period is approximately the first two weeks of life  Figure 3.1  Amniotic sac: membrane containing a watery fluid that encloses the developing organism, protecting it from physical shocks and temperature changes  Placenta: fleshy, disk-like structure formed by cells from the lining of the uterus and from the zygote, and that together with the umbilical cord, serves to protect and sustain the life of the organism  Umbilical cord: tube that contains blood vessels that carry blood back and forth between the growing organism and its mother by the way of the placenta; it carries oxygen and nutrients to the growing infant and removes carbon dioxide and waste products  Ectoderm: the hair, nails, and parts of the teeth, the outer layer of the skin and skin glands, and the sensory cells and the NS develop  Mesoderm forms into the muscles, skeleton, circulatory and excretory systems, and inner skin layer  Endoderm forms the gastrointestinal tract, trachea, bronchia, Eustachian tubes, glands and vital organs  If something prevents the neural folds from closing completely, the child will have spina bifida, a disorder in which the spinal cord and membranes that protect it may protrude from the spinal column  Cephalocaudal: the pattern of human physical growth in which development begins in the area of the brain and proceeds downward, to the trunk and legs  Proximal-distal: pattern of human physical growth wherein development starts in central area like internal organs, and proceed to more distant areas like arms and legs  At the end of the third month, fetus has all of its body parts, including any external genitals  Lanugo: fine, soft hair that covers the fetus’ body from about the fifth month of gestation onwards, may be shed before or after birth  Respiratory distress syndrome: condition of the newborn marked by the laboured breathing and bluish discolouration of the skin or mucous membrane, which often lead to death  Age of viability: age 22-26 weeks, by which point the fetus’ physical systems are well enough advanced that it has a chance at survival if born prematurely  Teratogen exerts its effects largely during critical periods. Most vulnerable to teratogens at the embryonic stage. For the heart its specifically between 20-40s of life  Each teratogen exerts certain specific effects. Different toxins affect different developmental processes  Either maternal or fetal genotypes may counteract a teratogen’s affects. Not all infants are vulnerable to the toxin. Those who develop defects do so because of their own genetic vulnerability to that teratogen  The effects of one teratogen may intensify the effects of another  Different teratogens may produce the same defect. Eg. Deafness may result if the mother contracts rubella or if she ingests quinine or streptomycin  The longer a fetus is exposed to a particular teratogen and the greater the intensity of the teratogen’s effects, the more likely its that the fetus will be seriously harmed  Figure 3.2  Women that drank three or more coffee a day were at higher risk for miscarriage or low birthweight infants  Smoking and drinking is associated with disturbances in placental functioning and with changes in maternal physiological that lead oxygen deprivation and this to changes in the fetus’ brain  Sudden infant death syndrome: infants under the age of 6 months stop breathing and die without any apparent cause  Passive smoking can cause delays in intellectual and behavioural development  Fetal alcohol syndrome: infants of alcoholic mothers and characterized by stunted growth, a number of physical and physiological abnormalities and often mental retardation  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: used to describe the range of effects associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol  Damage from alcohol appears to be greatest in the last trimester  Koren explains that the IQ of cocain-addicted infants and normal children is the same, the only difference is the test scores on language tests. This may be due to low SES, low maternal education, and other forms of maternal addiction  Diethylstilbestrol: synthetic hormone once prescribes to pregnant women to prevent miscarriages but discontinued when cancer and pre-cancerous conditions were detected in the children of such women  Thalidomide: drug once prescribes to relieve morning sickness but discontinued when found to cause serious malformations of the fetus like deformation of eyes, nose and ears, cleft palate, facial palsy, dislocations of hip joint and malformations of the heart. Current controversy surrounds possible use in treating symptoms of disease of aids, cancer and leprosy  Phocomelia: limbs are missing and the feet and hands are attached directly to the torso in such a way that, too many they look like flippers  Tetracylines may depress infant skeletal growth  Anti-convulsant drugs may result in the development of cleft lip and palate as well as heart/skeletal defects  If a woman has a child while she is under the age of 15 or over 35 they are more likely to experience more problems during pregnancy and complications during delivery than other women  Toxemia: condition that results from the spread of bacterial products in the bloodstream  Table 3.1  If a pregnant women contracts mumps during her first trimester, her infant is more likely to suffer some kind of malformations than if the disease is contracted later in the pregnancy  If rubella is contracted during the first month of pregnancy, her fetus risks cardiac disorders, cataract formation, deafness, and mental retardation, but if she contracts the illness in her third month, the likelihood that her infant will suffer disability declines substantially  Rh factor incompatibility: condition in which an infant’s Rh positive blood opposes its mother’s Rh negative blood, and threatens fetuses in second and third trimesters and later births when the mother’s body has had time to produce antibodies that will attack fetal blood cells  Toxoplasmosis: parasitic disease acquired by eating undercooked meat or by making contact with feces in handling cat litter can affect the infant. It is transmitted through the placenta. Can cause eye and brain damage  Ectopic pregnancy: zygote implants in the woman’s fallopian tube instead of in her uterus, and to save the mother’s life, the pregnancy must be terminated  Woman has 25% chance of transmitting the AIDS virus to her child. Drinking the mother’s milk even after birth can give aids  Children with aids may experience a small head, a square forehead, widely spaced and slanted eyes  First stage of labour begins as the mother experience regular uterine contactions that are spaced at 10-15 min intervals, these eventually become more intense. This last about 8-14 hours for first born child and half that for the rest of the children  Second stage is less than an hour, infant descends through the birth canal and is delivered through the vaginal opening  Third stage of birth only takes a few mins, as the uterus expels the placenta  The hormonal changes are high progesterone during pregnancy, followed by a decline in progesterone and a rise in other hormones like estrogen and prolactin  Couvades syndrome: when experience pregnancy symptoms like weight gain, nausea, fatigue and emotional changes  More males are born with physical anomalies than females  Apgar scoring system: tested at 1 min and 5 min after birth, includes HR, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability and colour and is given a score of 0,1 or 2. 7-10 is a good condition baby, under 5= developmental difficulties, 4=life-threatening condition  Premature baby are normally 5 pounds or less  Small for date: premature baby that might be born close to its due date but who weighs significantly less than would be appropriate to its gestational age  Table 3.2  Adverse perinatal complications often lessen in intensity or disappear with age Chapter 4  Reflex: involuntary response to external stimulation  Reflexes that are weak, absent, unusually strong, or fail to disappear when expected can be a sign of neurological problems  Table 4.1  Infant state: recurring pattern of arousal in the newborn, ranging from alert, vigorous, wakeful activity to quiet, regular sleep  Fetal activity and premature infants tell us that arousal patterns begin to form before birth  Newborn sleeps about 70% of the time in a series of long and short naps during the day and night  By 4 weeks, periods of sleep tend to be fewer but longer, and by the time they are 8 weeks they sleep more during the night and less during the day  Table 4.2  As a baby REM sleep is for about 50%, by the time of adulthood its 20%  Autostimulation theory: during REM sleep that infants brain stimulates itself and that this, in turn, stimulates early development of the CNS  Infants cry in 3 patterns: basic (linked to hunger, starts arrhythmically at low sequence, becomes louder and more rhythmic), angry (crying segments are longer with little rest in between), pain (sudden onset, loud of the beginning, long cry followed by short, gasping inhalations)  When the mother responds to the cry promptly, the frequency and duration of crying may actually decrease, as the baby develops the expectation that the mother can be counted on to help  Colic: prolonged period of unexplained crying in an infant  Brazelton Neonatal assessment scale: measure an infant’s sensory and perceptual capabilities, motor development, range of states, and ability to regulate these states. Scale also indicates whether the brain and the CNS are properly regulating autonomic responsivity  The crying curve indicates that a baby’s cry gradually increases over the first two months of life and then subsequently decreasing until the fourth month  Violation of expectation method: an object is suspended or floating in air, if seeing this info, the baby responds by altering behaviour, it suggests that the baby knows something about how objects normally work and that this expectation of the normal course of events has been violated  Visual preference method: studying infant’s abilities to distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they spend attending to different stimuli  Visual acuity: sharpness of vision the clarity with which fine details can be discerned  By age 3-4 mo, infants can clearly distinguish among most colours can group colours in to basic categories, red, blues and greens  By 4 mo, infant colour vision is similar to that of adults  Both learning and experience are required to see patterns in an adult manner  By the age of 2 mo, babies visually trace both the edges of a pattern and the internal areas  By 3mo, babies are also almost as good as adults at picking unified patterns out of generalized movement  Newborns as young as 30 mins, show a preference for face-like images as opposed to non face- like images  The great number of high-contrast areas seen in the upper portion of the face pattern is preferred by newborns  Eyes of a newborn move in the same direction only for about half the time  Ability to perceive depth improves with age, as eye coordination develops and moer cues to depth and distance become available to the infant  Stereoscopic vision: sense of a third spatial dimension produced by the brain’s fusion of the separate images contributed by both eyes, each of which reflects the stimulus from a slightly different angle  By 3-5mo, babies can coordinate their two eyes and so can begin to see depth as adults do, using stereoscopic vision  Babies that are born crossed eyed, usually don’t develop normal stereoscopic vision, unless the eyes are surgically corrected before the age of 2  Size constancy: tendency to perceive an object as constant in size regardless of changes in its distance from the viewer and in the image it casts on the retina of the eyes  Shape constancy: ability to perceive an object’s shape as remaining constant despite changes in its orientation and the angle from which one views it  Understanding of perceptual continuity emerges over the first six months of life  Female babies show stronger behavioural reactions to pain than males do  Intermodal perception: use of sensory info from more than one modality to identify a stimulus; also, the apprehension of a stimulus already identified by one modality by means of another  Touch to vision is easier as opposed to vision to touch  9 mo can carry out imitations both immediately and after and interval of 24 hrs, with no opportunity to practise the behaviours in between  14 mo infants can delay imitation over a period of one week, and from thereon they can generalize it to new settings  Infants will more likely imitate an adult who is modelling gestures, compared with two objects simulating these gestures  With a short time period, infants prefer a new stimulus, and after a longer interval, they actually prefer a familiar one Chapter 5  Neuron proliferation: neurons multiply a very rapid pace during the embryonic phase  Glial cells: surround and protect neurons, also grow, regulate nutrients and repair neural tissue. Are apart of myelin sheaths  Neural migration: all parts of the brain are served by a sufficient number of neurons. If insufficient, can result in disorders  Neuronal death: when new synapses form, surrounding neurons die to provide more space for crucial loci of info transmission  Synaptic pruning: brain disposes of axons and dendrites if that particular neuron is not often stimulated  Right hemisphere processes visual-spatial info, non-speech like music, and perception of faces, and emotion  Left hemisphere is related to emotion associated with approach to external environment like joy, interest, anger. Right H. is activated in emotional expressions that cause person to turn away or withdraw from environment like distress, disgust and fear  Two experiences that influence brain development:  Experiences such as touch, patterned visual input, sounds of language, affectionate expressions from caregivers and nutrition. Trigger synaptic development and pruning are critical for normal brain development  Unique to individuals, experiences encountered in particular families, communities and cultures  Three phases of locomotion: up until age of 2mo, when child is held upright they will move legs copying the walking, then this disappears then reappears with stepping movements. By 1 yr child start to walk  Thelen’s dynamic systems theory: walking skills are determined by the interplay of a variety of emotional, perceptual, attentional, motivational, postural and anatomical factors  Perception-action coupling: motor or action systems are functionally interrelated to sensory or perceptual systems such that changes in one aspect influence the development of the other aspect  Growth can be guided by cephalocaudal (from head downwards) or proximal-distal (centre outwards)  Child reached for objects 2 weeks earlier with their feet than with their hands, demonstrating more complex motor skills with parts of the body further away from the head than body parts closer to the head  Babies grow faster in their first half year of life than ever again, double their weight in 3 months, and triple by the end of first year  Babies start off as top-heavy light-bulb shaped bodies and become cylindrical, and centre of mass moves from the sternum to below the belly bottom  daily observations reveal that growth is episodic rather than continuous  benefits for breast-feeding is protection against disease, better development of the CNS, and reduces changes of sudden infant death syndrome  catch-up growth : tendency for humans to regain a normal course of physical growth after injury or deprivation  secular trend: shift in the normative pattern of a characteristic, such as height or weight that occurs over a historical time period  obesity: weight is 30% or more in excess of the average weight for his or her height and frame  if you are more educated and higher SES, less likely to be obese  spermarche: first ejaculation of semen-containing ejaculate  menarche: beginning of menstrual cycle  when child-parent emotional relationship is distant, child sexually matured faster Chapter 7  language: communication system in which words and symbols combined, regulate ways to produce infinite number of messages  communicative competence: ability to convey thoughts, feelings, and intentions in organized pattern that regulate human interaction  receptive language: understanding the speech of others  language is divided into phonology, semantics, grammar and pragmatics  phonology: system of sounds that particular language uses  phoneme: basic unit of language, affect meaning of the word  semantic: study of word meanings and word combination  grammar: structure of language’s smallest unit of means  morpheme: language’s smallest unit of meaning such as prefix, suffix or root word  syntax: describes how words are to be combined into phrases, and sentences  pragmatics: set of rules that specifies appropriate language for social context  language-acquisition device: Chomsky proposed mental structure in that human nervous system that incorporates an innate concept of language. Proof is that all languages have common principles  English language showed sharpest decline in language skills with increasing age  Language-acquistion support system: collection of strategies and tactics that environmental influences. Child’s parents or primary caregiver provide the language learning child  This can be done by playing peek-a-boo  Expansion: speak to child in which they imitate and expand or add to the child’s statement. Eg. Give mama to give it to mama  Recast: speak to child in which they render a child’s incomplete sentence in a more complex grammatical form. Eg. Kitty eat to what is the kitty eating?  6mo baby responds with smiles, gestures, movements and sounds  Proto-declaractive: gesture that an infant uses to call attention to an object  Proto-imperative: gesture that either an infant or a young child may use to get someone to do something he/she wants  Joint visual attention: ability to follow another person’s attentional focus or gaze of direction  Categorical speech perception: tendency to perceive as the same a range of sounds belonging to the same p
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