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Chapter 2

CHAPTER TWO.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Summer

Description
CHAPTER TWO – Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural Factors Paradigms: Conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works  How to understand a patient  How to gather data  How to study information presented Biological Paradigm The abnormality arises due to some neurological/biological issue. The abnormality is caused by the body. Behaviour Genetics Genotype versus phenotype  Genotype: inherited characteristic  Phenotype: Observable, behavioural characteristics. Product of the genotype and the phenotype. o A disorder is not inherited by genetics. You can have the gene that makes you predisposed for having it. Family method  If a predisposition can be inherited, a study of the family should show a relationship with the index case (the individual with the disorder) and the probans (relatives). o Very true with schizophrenia Twin method  Monozygotic (MZ) twins – share 100% of genetic makeup  Dizygotic (DZ) twins – share of 50% of genetic makeup  Concordance: When twins are similar diagnostically similar. o Predisposition shows that the concordance between monozygotic twins should have a higher rate than dizygotic twins. o This means the trait is heritable. Adoptees method  Environment can be ruled out through this method Linkage Analysis  Look for a large collection of people in a family unit who might have a disorder.  Looking for biological/genetic markers of the disorder to try to link up what might be common for the disorder. Biochemistry Neurotransmission  Information between synapses is caused by electricity  Messages are chemicals that are contained by until they are activated by an electrical charge  Neurotransmitters move from one neuron to the next from one synapse to the other, moving across a synaptic cleft  Some neurotransmitter: o Serotonin: has many functions, limits violent impulses o Noradrenaline: receives messages about outside threats and prepares the body to react o Substance-P: carries messages about pain o Endorphins: pain killers  If electrical impulses go wrong, the neurotransmitters also go wrong, leading to mental disorders Reuptake  When action potential reaches the synaptic terminal of axon, it reaches the synapse (the area where two neurons meet).  They are split by the synaptic cleft – the first is the presynaptic neuron (axon) and the receiving neuron is the postsynaptic neuron (dendrite)  The action potential makes the synaptic terminal positively charged, sending neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitters quickly diffuse across to the receptors of the dendrite.  Each receptor binds to specific neurotransmitters. The receptors open ion channels so the ions of the neurotransmitters can diffuse across the cell membrane of the dendrite.  The diffusion causes a postsynaptic potential. They can be excitatory (EPSP) or inhibitory (IPSP), the first making a neuron more likely to fire and the second to make it less likely to fire. A synapse can either be an excitatory synapse or inhibitory synapse.  Postsynaptic potentials cannot last long. They then diffuse back to their synapse. These potentials travel far enough to reach the cell body where it is decided what the response will be. Clinical psychologists don’t spend a lot of time with neurochemistry because they cannot alter it – they can’t prescribe drugs. Structure and functions of the brain Cortical (outside of brain) structures are in charge of higher order thinking. Subcortical (inner parts of brain) structures are more involved in movement disorders. Frontal lobes – executive functioning (motor movement, planning, inhibition, emotion, learning, memory)  Right side: retrieval of information o damage to this side can give rise to manic-like states  Left side: oncoding (bringing in information); speech o damage to this side can give rise to depressed-like states Temporal lobes – language areas  Right side: comprehension of non-verbal sounds  Left side: Wernicke’s area - comprehension of language sounds Parietal Lobes – visual/special functioning  Right side: damage to this side may result in visual neglect – ignoring one side of their vision  Left side: damage to this side results in difficulty in understanding movement Occipital Lobes – vision How do you investigate the brain? Structuaral neuroimaging techniques  CT scan  MRI Functional neuroimaging techniques  PET scan fMRI is a combination of both Approaches to treatment Psychoactive Drugs Anxiolytics – used for anxiety disorders; sleep disorders; phobic disorders; pain disorders  Benzodiazepines o Alprazolam (Xanax); Clonazepam (Klonopin); Diazepam (Valium); Lorazepam (Ativan) Antidepressants – used for depressive disorders; eating disorders; first-line treatment for pain disorders; sometimes for demetia  Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) o Celexa; Prozac; Zoloft  Tricyclic Antidepressants o Elavil; Amitryptine  Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOIs) o Nardil; Parnate Antipsychotics – used for schizophrenia; behavioural disorders; dementia/neurodegenerative disorders  Phenothiazines o Thorazine  Thioxanthenes o Cloxan  Second generation antipsychotics o Clozapine o Olanzapine o Risperidone Psycho-Stimulants – works by improving cognition (ability to focus/remember); used for ADHD/ADD; dementia  Amphetamines o Ritalin; Aricept Psychoanalytic paradigms Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Structure of the mind – gave rise to neuroses (abnormality) caused by conflict between the 3 structures  Id – below the level of the unconscious. o Pleasure principle –
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