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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 1 started in Ancient Egypt, China, Babylon and Greece. Treatments involved: Psychopathology: field concerned with nature and o Exorcism: casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts and chanting or torture. feelings. Problems we may face in this field: we don’t o Trepanning: make a surgical opening in a living know much about the field; it’s hard to stay objective; skull by an instrument. This was for demons and how to define abnormal behaviour. dwelling in cranium (epilepsy, headaches…). They Abnormal Behaviour at best can be described as: were done to create an opening for the devil to  Statistical infrequency: normal curve (curve where leave after the person becomes inhabitable majority of people are in the middle, and the extremes because of poor body conditions (starvation). are infrequent), are used to determine infrequencies.  Somatogenesis: something wrong with the soma It’s not complete: what about those above average? disturbs thought and action. One proponent is They’re infrequent but not sick. Hippocrates. Psychogenesis: a disturbance with  Violation of norms: this is not complete because it is too subjective and it is too wide and narrow psychological origins. Hippocrates classified 3 mental problems (mania, melancholia, and phrenitis), and he simultaneously: prostitutes violate social norms, but practised based on the balance of the 4 humours: are not considered abnormal, and people with GAD blood, black bile (too much of this was melancholia), are considered abnormal but don’t violate norms. yellow bile and phlegm.  Personal distress: this criterion includes some, but not  Dark Ages and Demonology: In the Dark Ages, the all. Psychopaths don’t experience distress. church gained influence and demonology gained  Disability or dysfunction: Disability is defined as popularity again, except this time it was treated by impairment in some area in life because of monks, who prayed over the sick. Also in Dark Ages: abnormality. Also not complete because you are o Witch hunts: Inspired by pope, belief that witches disabled from playing basketball if you’re short, but took power from devil, and no other explanation, you’re not abnormal people began to witch hunt. 2 monks in Germany  Unexpectedness: this one sums all the rest. made the Malleus Maleficarum (witch guide). Mental Health Professions: Although some may have been mentally ill, not all o Clinical Psychologist: requires PhD/PsyD. the witches showed psychotic symptoms. Candidates for this learn techniques of  Asylum development: People were first concerned assessment and diagnosis, and how to practice with leprosy during the crusades, and when the psychotherapy (verbal means of helping crusades ended and there was no more contact with individuals change thoughts, feelings and the Easterners, leprosy died down and people focused behaviour to reduce distress). on the mad. Leprosariums were converted to asylums o Psychiatrist: holds MD and has residency training (refuges establishment for confinement and care of for psychotherapy and diagnosis. They can mentally ill). prescribe psychoactive drugs. o Bethlehem Asylum: it became known as bedlam o Psychoanalyst: special training in psychoanalytic (contraction that means a place or scene of wild institute. uproar and confusion). Patients became o Social Worker: holds MSW entertainers, where people paid to come watch o Counselling psychologists: similar to clinical them behave frantically. psychology, but with less emphasis on research. o Just because it’s in a hospital, didn’t mean it was o Psychiatric nurse: nurse in mental health field. better: Rush thought mental illness was because of History of Psychopathology: too much blood in brain, so he drew blood, as well  Early Demonology: evil being may dwell within a as that lunatics can be treated by being frightened. person and control his or her mind and body. This o Moral Treatment: improvement on the treatment of the mentally ill in asylums and hospitals. People who started this: Pinel (although he did it for the Modernly, psychopathology is believed to be caused by wealthy), Tuke and Dix (she tried, but the hospitals a disturbance in some biological process. she helped open for a good cause, ended up being  Behaviour Genetics: study of individual differences in worse because employees were more interested in behaviour that are attributable to differences in the biological aspect, rather than the psychological, genetic makeup. An individual’s genotype (her and ended up using the patients as test subjects). unobservable genetic constitution; his set of alleles)  Contemporary Thought and current attitudes: vs. phenotype (totality of her observable, behavioural o Early System of Classification: Kraeplin coined characteristics, e.g. level of anxiety). Genotype syndrome (a group of symptoms). He classified remains constant; it controls the turning on or off the them into 2 categories: dementia praecox characteristic. Phenotype is the product of genotype (schizophrenia) and bipolar disorder. One and environment, so it changes when genotype turns syndrome was general paresis (deterioration of off or on. Predisposition (diathesis) is inherited, but physical and mental capabilities). may not develop into a disorder. Studies: o Pasteur established germ theory of disease: o Family method: used to study genetic disease is caused by infection of the body by predisposition because the number of shared minute organisms. genes between family members is known. 1 - st nd o Mesmer and Charcot started exploring hysteria in degree relatives share 50%, 2 -degree relatives relation to hypnosis. share 25%. First, collect a sample of individuals o Breuer discovered the cathartic method who bear diagnosis (they are the index cases or (experience of reliving an earlier emotional probands). Second, relatives are studied to see catastrophe and releasing the emotional tension frequency. caused by suppressed thoughts). o Twin method: Mono and dizygotic twins are o People with mental disorders in Canada usually compared (MZ and DZ). Concordance: extent that face stereotyping and stigmatization. a predisposition of a disorder can be inherited. o There have been several anti-stigma campaigns. Problems: equal environment assumption Canada’s mental health system: Research shows that (assumption that they face same environmental mental health is poorer in the young. Also, stress is the stresses) may not be true; may be raised with the primary correlate, followed by social support, with same parenting style that causes the disorder. regards to mental health. Also, there are no regional o Adoptees method: study children with abnormal differences in mental health (except in the case of disorders who have been adopted and reared Aboriginals, NF and PEI are the happiest, and Quebec is away from biological parents. the most self-confident, but really sad). In Canada, there o Linkage analysis: method in molecular genetics is a drive towards deinstitutionalization (bed reduction) that is used to study people. They look for genetic in psychiatric aides. The consequences of this are bad markers from people in the same family. People and include homelessness, jailing, failure to achieve here usually look at gene-environment ideal of community-focused care… Another problem interactions (a disorder is the joint product of a with Canada’s medicare system is the long wait times. genetic vulnerability and specific environmental experiences. Chapter 2 Neuroscience: study of brain and nervous system. Neurons have 4 main parts: cell body, dendrites, Paradigms: conceptual framework within which a axons, and terminal buttons. When a neuron is scientist works. It inserts bias into the definition and stimulated, a nerve impulse (change in electric collection of data. potential energy) travels down the terminal endings to 1. Biological Paradigm: continuation of somatogenic the synapse (a gap between axon and dendrite). At hypothesis; mental disorders are caused by aberrant the terminal buttons, there are vesicles containing biological processes (aka medical or disease model). neurotransmitters. The postsynaptic receives the chemical, which would be either excitatory or Midbrain: mass of nerve fiber tracts connecting inhibitory, after being on the receptor site. The cerebral cortex with pons, medulla oblongata, presynaptic neuron needs to reuptake (when not all cerebellum and spinal cord. neurotransmitters have been uptaken, but the Brain stem: has pons (has tracts that connect synapse needs to be empty again). Some theories cerebellum, and spinal cord and motor areas of believe disorders happen because of lack or excess of cerebrum) and medulla oblongata (main line of traffic neurotransmitters, while others believe it is the for tracts coming from higher brain centers and going receptor’s fault. to spinal cord; also maintains breathing, heartbeat, Treatments: focus on treatment that alters bodily blood vessel); also a relay station. In center of stem is functioning. Drugs are efficient in that they take the reticular formation responsible for arousal and shorter time to be effective than other methods. alertness. Reductionism: whatever is being studied can and Cerebellum is just like cerebrum. But smaller, and should be reduced to its most basic constituent receives input from inner ears and joints and muscles elements. This view implies that there is no to maintain balance, posture and equilibrium related psychology, only biology. This is not true because to motion. some things can only be explained socially, and the Limbic system: controls visceral and physical psychotherapies work just as good as drugs. expressions of emotion, appetite and primary drives (hunger, mating, defence…). Structures: cingulate Structure and function of human brain: Brain is gyrus, septal area, hippocampus and amygdala. enveloped in 3 layers of meninges. There is a midline fissure dividing the cerebrum (has all cortices, limbic 2. Cognitive-Behavioural Paradigm: Behavioural system and basal ganglia) into 2 cerebral hemispheres, perspective: Watson tried to end introspection by which are connected by corpus callosum. The cerebral starting behaviourism (focus on observable behaviour cortex is 6 layers of tightly packed neurons that are rather than consciousness). Types of learning: unsheathed. These are called grey matter. The cortex a. Classical conditioning: Pavlov: involves a US, UR, CS has gyri (ridges) and sulci (fissures). These divide the and CR, where US becomes the CS and creates CR. cerebral cortex into 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal Extinction: when the stimulus isn`t presented and occipital. The left hemisphere is responsible for anymore, and the CR gradually disappears. the right side of the speech and analytical thinking. b. Operant Conditioning: Skinner: he made the law of The right is for left side of the brain, spatial relations effect (shifting focus from linking S-R to relations and patterns, and emotion and intuition. In the between responses and their consequences. interior of the brain is white matter. These are Discriminative stimulus: external events that in myelinated and connect cortex with spinal cord and effect tell an organism if it performs certain other lower centers in the brain (grey matter called behaviour, a certain consequence will follow. 2 types nuclei). The nuclei integrate motor and sensory of reinforcements: positive (strengthen a tendency control centers. There are also 4 masses in each to respond by virtue of a pleasant event) and hemisphere (basal ganglia) and ventricles (cavities) negative (strengthens a response via removal of an which are near central canal in spinal cord and filled aversive event). with cerebrospinal fluid. c. Modelling: Bandura: watch and imitate, aka Diencephalon (connected in the front with the vicarious learning. This involves 4 steps: attention to hemispheres and behind with midbrain) has thalamus model`s behaviour, retention of that behaviour, (relay station for all senses, except olfactory, and reproduction of the behaviour, and motivation due sends to cerebrum) and hypothalamus (highest centre to positive consequences that may have resulted for integration – regulate metabolism, temperature, after imitation. Bandura is also working on social prespiraiton, blood pressure, sleep and appetite), both cognitive theory that focuses on human agency and of nuclei. self-efficacy (individual`s sense of being capable). Behavioural therapy/modification: applied procedures When id doesn’t get what it wants, it becomes based on classical and operant conditioning to alter nervous and goes through primary process clinical problems. There are 3 approaches: modelling, thinking (imagine fantasies). counterconditioning and exposure (relearning ii. Ego: primarily conscious and develops in 6 achieved by eliciting a new response in the presence months. It goes through secondary process of a particular stimulus; one type is systematic thinking (planning) and realizes pleasure principle desensitization; another is aversive conditioning – is followed, and follows the reality principle stimulus that pleases client is paired with nausea to (meditate between reality and pleasure) remove it) and operant conditioning (unlearning, with iii. Superego: conscience and develops throughout includes successive approximations). childhood, driven by perfection principle. Cognition: term that groups mental processes of Objective anxiety (ego’s reaction to realistic danger) perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging and vs. neurotic anxiety (fear not connected to any real reasoning. Cognitive paradigm focuses on how people threat) vs. moral anxiety (impulses of superego to structure experiences, how they make sense of them punish person when expectations are not met). and how they relate current experiences to past ones Defence mechanisms: discomfort reduction of ego. in memory. They believe learner has schemas These are maladaptive (cognitive set to which they add new information).  Repression: push unacceptable thoughts into Beck developed cognitive therapy to treat depression, unconsciousness since it’s most likely based on the idea that depressed  Denial: disavowing a traumatic experience people have distortions on what they perceive (they  Projection: attribute other people to have see more negativity). This is supported with imaging characteristics/desires that she has but can’t studies that show overstimulation of amygdala when consciously accept. there are negative stimuli. Rational-Emotive  Displacement: redirecting emotional response Behaviour Therapy (REBT): emotional reactions are from danger to someone les harmful caused by internal sentences that people repeat to  Reaction formation: convert your emotions to the themselves and these self-statements reflect opposite (homosexuality) unspoken irrational beliefs about what is necessary to  Regression: retreating to behavioural childhood live a meaningful life.  Rationalization: trying to explain Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: employ cognitive  Sublimation: converting sexual/aggressive restructuring (changing though process). behaviours into a socially acceptable one Miechenbaum is a cognitive behaviourist and uses Psychoanalytic therapy is an insight one: find constructivism (encompass broad panoply of childhood problem, fix it and let ego grow normally. perspectives that emphasize those processes by which Free association: client is encouraged to think freely, meaning is constructed by people in personal, aloud. Sometimes, client encounters resistance (stop interpersonal and social constructs): self-instructional or try to change the topic because it may bother training (client prepares specific coping statements them). Another is dream analysis (because in sleep, when confronted with hard situations) and stress- ego defences relax, unconscious conflicts arise). The inoculation (learn to cope with stress through small latent content is the repressed material disguised. stressful tasks). Another is transference (client responds to analyst as 3. Psychoanalytic Paradigm: Freud: psychopathology though he were the person causing personal conflict). results from the unconscious conflicts. Freud divided Bad thing: countertransference may result. This the mind into these that form psychodynamic theory: therapy evolved into expanding to group therapy. i. Id: present at birth and accounts for all the Another development is ego analysis (focus shifted energy needed to run the psyche. The libido from intrapsychic to person’s ability to control converted into psychic energy unconsciously at environment and to select time and means for maturity. The id follows the pleasure principle. instinctual drives. Contemporary approaches of psychodynamic: modern  Axis II: Personality Disorders and mental retardation structural theory, self-psychology, object relations  Axis II: General medical conditions theory, interpersonal relational and attachment  Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems theory. Interpersonal therapy: concentrate on client’s  Axis V: Current level of functioning; considers current interpersonal difficulties and discuss with psychological, social and occupational functioning client ways of relating to others. Freud contributed to (100 is good, 0 is bad) science that childhood experiences help shape adult Disorders: personality, there are unconscious influences on o Disorders first diagnosed in infancy: behaviour, and people use defence mechanisms to Separation anxiety disorder (anxiety about being control anxiety. away from home or parents) 4. Humanistic-Existential paradigms: also insight-seeking, Conduct Disorder (violate social norms and rules) but focus on
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