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Chapter 1

PSYB20Fall2013 Chapter 1.docx

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Diane Mangalindan

PSYB20Fall2013 Chapter 1: Themes, Theories and Methods o Child development  field of study that seeks to account for the gradual evolution of the child’s cognitive, social and other capacities first by describing changes in the child’s observed behaviours and then by uncovering the processes or strategies that underlie these changes o Researchers devise theories  empirical studies  propose practical applications of their research o Darwing conducted research on infants’ early sensory capacities and young chidren’s emotions o James Mark Baldwin was appointed to U of T  he used his own daughter to study topics such as handedness, suggestion and will in infancy and imitation o 1926 St.George’s School of Child Study was opened in Canada o Blatz  Dionne quintuplets study  5 sisters raised in compound from 2 months to 8 years old that was on display for the public o Promoted the study of development and did a lot for Canadian developmental psychologists (1930s) Themes of Development o 5 aspects of development = biological, cognitive, linguistic, emotional and social Origins of Behavior: Biological vs. Environmental Influences o Gesell  course of development largely predetermined by biological factors  maturation: genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time o Watson  biological facors places no restrictions on the ways the environment can shape the course of a child’s development o Believed that by properly organizing an environment he could produce a genius or a criminal o Now: combination of child’s biological characteristics and environment – dynamic process where the child also contributes Pattern of Developmental Change: Continuity vs. Discontinuity o Continuous view  gradual series of shifts in capacities, skills and behavior (smooth) o Discontinuous view  abrupt changes, each qualitatively different from the one that precedes it o Contemporary view = both o c = most successful strategies predominate Forces That Affect Developmental Change: Individual Characteristics versus Contextual and Cultural Influences o interactionist viewpoint  dual role of individual and contextual factors 1 o ex: child with aggressive personality traits, is more likely to seek out contexts in which these traits can be displayed but at the same time the same child in a different setting will be less likely to display these personality traits RISKS TO HEALTHY DEVELOPMENT AND INDIVIDUAL RESILIENCE o situational challenges or risks to healthy development  risks can be psychological or physiological, or environmental o children respond to risk in different ways o some suffer permanent developmental disruptions, some show sleeper effects (cope well initially but exhibit problems later in development), others exhibit resilience and can deal with the challenge o children that experience risk seem to better adapt to challenges later in life than the children than do not RESEARCHING ACROSS CULTURES o examining child development across cultures provides information about variation in the range of human potential and expression that may emerge in different circumstances of growth Structural-Organismic Perspectives o Freud and Piaget  structuralism o Freud = emotions and personality, Piaget = thinking o Both devised developmental theory that included evolutionary theory o Now kown as structural-organismic perspectives  theoretical approaches that describe psychological structures and processes that undergo qualitative or stage like changes over the course of development PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY o Freud  development which proceeds in discrete stages is determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with the environment and through the interaction of 3 components of personality (id, ego and superego) o Infant = controlled by id mostly (instinctual drives) gradually becomes more controlled by the ego o Ego (control) = rational and reality bound aspect that attempts to gratify needs through socially appropriate behavior o Superego with further development = when child internalizes social morals, values, roles and develops a conscience o Personality development = changes in interaction between the 3 components of personality, 5 stages o Oral stage  eating, sucking, biting o Anal stage (2-3 yrs)  child learns to postpone personal gratification such as pooping o Phallic stage  curiosity about sexual anatomy and sexuality o Latency period (6yrs – puberty)  sexual drives submerged and kids avoid relationships with the opposite sex o Genital period  sexual desires emerge and directed towards peers o Freud believed that the way in which the child negotiates the oral anal and phallic stages has a profound impact on emotional development and the adult personality  events in infancy and childhood impact on later development 2 o o Erik Erikson  psycosocial theory  sees children developing through a series of stages largely through accomplishing tasks that involve them in interaction with their social environment o Now: most influential is the adolescence stage in which child focuses on identity development and seeks to establish a clear and stable sense of self PIAGETIAN THEORY o Theory of cognitive development that sees the child as actively seeking new information and incorporating it into his knowledge base through the processes of assimilation and accommodation o Human developmet – biologically organized process o Adaptation – intellectual change occurs as mind becomes increasingly adapted to the world o Cognitive development is a process where child shift from focus to self and solving simple problems to a more complex, multi-faceted and abstract understanding of the world THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DEVELOPMENT o Theories are good for organizing information and generating new hypothesis o 5 general approaches to theories of development: structural-organismic, learning, dynamic systems, contextual and ethological and evolutionary views Learning Perspectives BEHAVIOURISM o Watson, Pavlov and Skinner o Behavioursim  school of psychology that holds that theories of behavior must be based on direct observations of actual behavior and not on speculations about such unobservable things as human motives o Relies on LERNING behaviors  relies on role of experience and so is a continuous view 3 o Classical conditioning  individuals learn to responds to unfamiliar stimuli in same way they respond to familiar stimuli fi the 2 are repeatedly presented together o Ex: Watson conditioned 11 month old to fear furry animals  infant was scared of noises so he would show a rat puppet to the child and then make loud noise, enough times that the child learnt to associate fear with the furry animal o Operant conditioning  learning depends on consequences of behavior, rewards increase likelihood behavior will occur and punishment decreases the likelihood COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY o Theory  stresses learning by observation and imitation mediated by cognitive processes and skills o Bandura  children exposed to aggressive behavior will imitate o INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACHES o definition: theories of dev that focus on the flow of info through the child’s congnitive system and particularly on the specific operations the child performs between input and stimulus phases o child attends info, changes it into cognitive representation, stores in memory, compares with other memories, generates various responses, decides which one is most appropriate, and finally takes the specific action Dynamic Systems Perspectives o dynamic systems theory  a theory that proposes that individuals develop and function within systems, it studies the relationships among individuals and systems and the processes by which these relationships operate o complexity each part of the system is unique but also related to other parts (ex: family comprises of many individuals like moms and dads, that are different but related) o wholeness and organization  system is organized and is more than just sum of all parts o identity and stabilization  no matter the change, identity of system remains same o morphogenesis  system must be able to grown and adapt to internal and external changes o equifinality most individuals reach the same dev milestones even though each one experiences a varying combo of genetic and environmental influences Contextual Perspectives o 3 contextual approaches to development  sociocultural theory, Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and the lifespan perspective SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY o Vygotsky  theory that sees dev as evolving out of children’s interactions with more skilled others in their social environment o Ex: peer tutoring  teaching math, reading etc. o The ways in which adults support and direct child dev is influenced by culture  tools of thinking are influenced by culture and help children solve problems, understand and think about the world 4 BRONFENBRENNER'S ECOLOGICAL THEORY o Theory stressed the importance of understanding not only the relationships between the organism and various environmental systems but also the relations among such systems themselves o o microsystem  settting where child lives and people that she interacts the most with o mesosystem  interrelations that occur among the components of the microsystem o exosystem  collection of settings that impinge on the child’s development but in which the child does not play a direct role o macrosystem  values, ideologies, and laws of the society and culture o chronosystem  represents that these 4 levels change over time o development involves changing child interacting with changing ecological context THE LIFESPAN PERSPECTIVE o theory that sees development as a process that continues thoruhgout the life cycle from infancy, thorugh adulthood and old age o age cohort  people born within the same generation o ex: age cohort effect  kids in the 1940s (post- Great Depression) had to help out their parents from very young to keep the family going and so suffered the same effect on child development o then these kids as they grew up, the boys opted fo
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