Textbook Notes (363,611)
Canada (158,470)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)

PSYB32 ﹣ CH1.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

CH1. Introduction: Definitional and Historical consideration 9/30/2013 10:10:00 PM Psychopathology: the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behavior thoughts and feelings Abnormal behavior: statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability/ dysfunction, unexpectedness Normal curve/bell-shaped curve: places the majority of people in the middle as far as any particular characteristic Violation of norms: whether the behavior violates social norms/ threatens/makes anxious those observing it Cultural diversity can affect how we view the norm Personal distress: the behavior is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it Disability of dysfunction: impairment in some important area of life because of abnormality Unexpectedness: when distress and disability are unexpected responses to environmental stressors Mental Health Professions: Clinicians: the various professionals authorized to provide psychology services, takes different form Clinical psychologist: PhD/Psy.D Skill: learn techniques of assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders Learn how to practice psychotherapy (a primarily verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, behavior to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction) Psy.D: less emphasis on research; more on clinical training PhD – based on a scientist-practitioner model Psy.D – based on a scholar-practitioner model: flexible, socially response, thinking practitioner who derives his/ her skills from core knowledge in scientific psychology Psychologist are the primary researchers and providers of evidence-based psychological treatment Psychiatrist: MD degree and has had postgraduate training (residency), he/ she has received supervision in the practice of diagnosis and psychotherapy Giving physical examinations. Diagnosing medical problems, engage in prescribing psychoactive drugs Psychoanalyst: received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute Clinical training and in-depth psychoanalysis of the trainee institutes required of their graduates an MD, psychiatric residency Social worker: M.S.W Programs for counseling psychologist are similar to graduate training in clinical psychology but usually have less emphasis on research and the more severe forms of psychopathology History of psychology: Demonology: an evil being may dwell within a person and control his/ her mind and body Abnormal behavior was caused by possessiontreatment: exorcism (the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting/ torture)took the afflicted to drink terrible –tasting brews, on occasion more extreme measures to render the body uninhabitable to devils Trepanning of skull: Stone Age/ Neolithic cave dwellersindividual would return to a normal state by creating an opening through which evil spirits could escape Somatogenesis: the notion that something wrong with the soma/ physical body, disturbs thought and action th 15 century, B.C. Hippocrates (father of modern medicine) Separated medicine from religion, magic, and superstition Brain if the organ of consciousness, of intellectual life and emotion, deviant thinking and behavior were indications of some kind of brain pathology Psychogenesis: the belief that a disturbance has psychology origins 3 categories of mental disorders: mania 躁狂症, melancholia 憂鬱症, phrenitis 精神錯亂 Melancholia: tranquility 安靜, sobriety 冷靜, care in choosing food and drink, abstinence 禁 慾 from sex Normal brain functioning is dependent on a delicate balance among 4 low bile and phlegm 痰 (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm) EG. The body supposedly contained a preponderance of phlegm Black bile: the explanation for melancholia Yellow bile: irritability and anxiousness Too much blood: changeable temperament Human behavior is markedly affected by bodily structure/ substances and abnormal behavior is produced by some kind of physical imbalance/ even damage The Dark Ages And Demonology: Greek and Roman civilization ceased to exist The churches gained in influence, the papacy was declared independent of the state Christian monasteries replaced physicians as healers and authorities on mental disorder The monks cared for and nursed the sickprayed over the patients and touched them with relics/ they concocted 調制 fantastic potions for them to drink in the wanting phase of the moon th The Persecution of Witches: 13 A populace 民眾 that was already suffering from social unrest and recurrent famines and plagues again turned to demonology to explain these disasters European become obsessed with the devil Witchcraft (Satan): heresy and a denial of God In 1484 Pop Innocent VIII, sent 2 monks to northern Germany as inquisitors Malleus Maleficarum (the witch hammer)witch hunts Those accused of witchcraft were to be tortured if they didn’t confess; those convicted and unrepentant were to be handed over to the law for execution Witchcraft and Mental illness: Later Middle Ages The mentally ill were generally considered witches Intercourse with the devil and having flown to sabbats, the secret meetings of their cults Some witches: Delusions, hallucinationspsychotic Many of them were not mentally ill th 13 century, as the cities of Europe grew larger, hospitals began to come under secular jurisdiction English Law: allowed both the dangerously insane and the incompetent to be confined in a hospital “lunacy” trials to determine a person’s sanity were held in Englandconducted under the Crown’s right to protect the mentally impaired and a judgment of insanity allowed the Crown to become guardian of the lunatic’s estate Development of Asylums: th 15 century, very few hospitals in Europe th th Confinement of the mentally ill began in earnest in 15 , 16 centuries Leprosariums were converted to asylums Bethlehem and other early asylums: A hospital devoted solely to the confinement of the mentally ill Bedlam: a contraction and popular name for this hospitalbecame a descriptive and popular term for a place/ scene of wild uproar and confusion 19 century, Bethlehemtourist attractionppl view the violent patients and their antics was considered entertainment and tickets of admission to Bedlam were sold Benjamin Rush: father of American psychiatrymental disorder was caused by an excess of blood in the braintreatment: draw great quantities of blood; many “lunatics” could be cured by being frightened Moral Treatment: Philippe Pinel: a primary figure in the movement for humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill in asylums 1793, French Revolutionput in charge of a large asylum in Paris (La Bicetre)removed the chains of the people imprisoned Began to treat the patients as sick human beings rather than as beasts Believe patients in his care were essentially normal people who should be approached with compassion and understanding and treated with dignity as individual human beings If their reason had left them because of severe personal and social problems, it might be restored to them through comforting counsel and purposeful activity The more humanitarian treatment he reserved for the upper classes; patients of the lower classes were still subjected to terror and coercion as a means of control Moral treatment: patients had close contact with the attendants (talked and read to them and encouraged them to engage in purposeful activity; residents led as normal lives as possible and in general took responsibility for themselves within the constraints of their disorder) 2 findings from York Retreat: Drugs were the most common treatment and included alcohol, cannabis, opium, chloral hydrate The outcomes weren’t very favorable; fewer than 1/3 of the patients were discharged as improved/recovered Dorothea Dix: interested in the conditions of patients in private mental hospital and to the mentally ill people of the time who had nowhere to go for treatment state hospital staff members were unable to provide the individual attention that was a hallmark of moral treatment & the hospitals came to be administered by physicians who were interested in the biological aspects of illness and in the physical, rather than psychological, well-being of mental patients Sussman: the development of services for the mentally ill in Canada and British North American was largely ad hoc, with little cross-fertilization of ideas from province to province Dr.Lett: the first medical superintendent; believed in the humane care of patients The characteristic of Canada history: With the advent of the asylums, provisions for the mentally ill were separate from provisions for the physically ill, indigents 十分貧窮, criminals The process was segregated from the wider community – “this institution and the community were 2 separate and distinct solitudes”獨居 The mental hospital in Canada: The twentieth century and into the new millennium th 20 century, Provincial mental hospital became extremely overcrowded, and in too many instances individual treatment was unavailable with the exception of some radical treatments and whatever psychoactive drugs were available in different eras Drugs became the central means of treatment after the introduction of the antipsychotic phenothiazines in 1950s Sussman: eventually, institutionalization in Canada became a synonym for inhumane response to mentally ill people, often becaus
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.