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Konstantine Zakzanis

CH.2 current Paradigms and the role of cultural factors 10/1/2013 2:12:00 PM The Role of Paradigms: Paradigm: a set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry, it has profound implications for how scientists operate People whose research is based on shared paradigms are committed to the same rules and standards for scientific practice The Biological Paradigm: mental disorders are caused by aberrant biological processes = medical model/ disease model Germ theory: external symptoms were assumed to be produced through infection of the body by minute organisms and viruses Medical illnesses can differ widely from one another in their causes, but they all share 1 characteristic: in all of them, some biological process is disrupted/ not functioning normally Behavior genetics: the study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup Genotype: unobservable genetic constitution (fixed at birth) Phenotype: observable, behavioral characteristic Changes over time Product of an interaction btw the genotype and the environment Only the genotypes can be inherited Whether it’ll eventually endanger the phenotypic behavior disorder depend on environment and experience A predisposition (diathesis) may be inherited, but not the disorder itself 4 basic methods: Family method: used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family because the average no. of genes shared by 2 blood relatives is know First-degree relatives: people share 50% of their genes with a given individual Second-degree relatives: share 25% of the genetic makeup Index cases/ probands: the collection of a sample of individuals who bear the diagnosis in question If a genetic predisposition to the disorder being studies is present, first-degree relatives of the index cases should have he disorder at a rate higher than that found in the general population Twins method: Compare monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins Concordant: when the twins are similar diagnostically If a mental disorder can be inherited, concordance for the disorder should be greater in genetically identical MZ pairs than DZ pairs Equal environment assumption the environmental factors that are partial causes of concordance are equally influential for MZ pairs and DZ pairs The assumption of equality applies only to factors that are plausible environmental causes of psychopathology 3 factors as biasing heritability: violation of the equal environments assumption, the sex of the participant, his/ her age when the assessment took place Adoptees methods: If a high frequency of panic disorder were found in children reared apart from parents who also had panic disorder Molecular Genetics: Show whether a disorder has a genetic component; it tries to specify the particular gene/ genes involved and the precise functions of these genes “genetic polymorphism”: variability among members of the species involving different forms among members in the habitat; entails mutations in a chromosome that can be induced/ naturally occurring The generalizability and applicability to humans has been evaluated Attempts to identify specific genes that contribute to longevity Linkage analysis: a method in molecular genetics that is used to study people Study families in which a disorder is heavily concentrated Collect diagnostic information and blood samples to from affected individuals and their relatives; use blood samples to study the inheritance pattern of characteristics Genetic markers: whose genetics are fully understood The gene predisposing individuals to the psychopathology is on the same chromosome and in a similar location on that chromosome as the gene controlling the other characteristic Gene-environment interactions: disorder/ related symptoms are the joint product of a genetic vulnerability and specific environmental experiences/ condition Neuroscience and Biochemistry in the Nervous system: Neuroscience: the study of the brain and the nervous system Neuron: cell body/ dendrites/ 1/more axons of varying lengths/ terminal buttons on the many end branches of the axon Neuron stimulated at its cell body/ through its dendrite a nerve impulse (a change in the electric potential of the cell) travels down the axon to the terminal endings Synapse: btw the terminal endings of the sending axon and the membrane of the receiving neuron Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that allow a nerve impulse to cross the synapse Nerve impulses cause the synaptic vesicles to release molecules of transmitter substancesflood the synapse and diffuse toward the receiving/ postsynaptic, neuron Receptor: The cell membrane of the postsynaptic cell contains proteins When a neurotransmitter fits into a receptor site, a message can be sent to the postsynaptic cell Reuptake: some of what remains in the synapse is broken down by enzymes and some is pumped back into the presynaptic cell Norepinephrine: producing states of high arousal Serotonin: depression Dopamine: schizophrenia GABA: inhibits some nerve impulsesanxiety disorder Maturational changes influence neurotransmitter levels Puberty: decrease in serotonin and dopamine activity in certain cortical areas increases in the secretion of gonadal hormones increase risk for psychopathology Mania: too much norepinephrine Anxiety disorders: too little GABA If the receptors on the postsynaptic neuron were too numerous/ too easily excitedhave too much transmitter released; more sites available with which the neurotransmitter could interact, increase the chances that the postsynaptic neuron would be stimulated Overabundance of dopamine receptors: delusion and hallucinations Structure and Function of the human brain Meninges: 3 layers of non-neural tissue, membranes around the brain Cerebrum: “thinking” center of the brain – includes the cortex and subcortical structures (basal ganglia and limb system) Corpus callous: connection btw 2 hemispheres Cerebral cortex: consist of 6 layers of tightly packed neuron cell bodies with many short, unsheathed interconnecting processes (grey matter) Gyri: ridges Frontal lobe: reasoning and other mental processes, the regulation of fine voluntary movement (in front of the central sulcus) Occipital lobe: vision (behind the parietal and temporal lobes) Temporal lobe: discrimination of sounds (below the lateral sulcus) Parietal lobe: behind central sulcus and above the lateral sulcus Initiation of movements of the movements of the skeletal musculature in a band in front of the central sulcus Receipt of sensations of touch, pressure, pain, temperature, body position from skin, muscles, tendons, joints in a band behind the central sulcus Left hemisphere: controls the right half of the bodyresponsible for speech, analytical thinking in right-handed people hemisphere Right hemisphere: emotion, intuitioncontrol left side of the body, discerns spatial relations and patterns White matter: made up of large tracts/ bundles of myelinated fibres that connect cell bodies in the cortex with those in the spinal cord and other centers lower in the brain Nuclei: grey matter connecting tracts from the cortex with other ascending and descending tractsintegrating motor and sensory control centers Basal ganglia: four mass are deep with each hemisphere Ventricles: cavities deep within the brain Diencephalon: connected in the front with the hemispheres and behind with the midbrain (contain thalamus, hypothalamus – consist groups of nuclei) Thalamus: relay station for all sensory pathways except the olfactory (smell) Nuclei: receive nearly all the impulses arriving from the different sensory areas of the bodypass them on to the cerebrum (interpreted as conscious sensations Hypothalamus: the highest center of integer for many visceral processes, regulating metabolism, temperature, perspiration, blood pressure, sleeping, appetite Midbrain: a mass of nerve-fibre tracts connecting the cerebral cortex with the pons, the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum and spinal cord Brain stem: comprises the pons and the medulla oblongata, neural relay station Pons: contains tracts that connect the cerebellum with the spinal cord and with motor area of the cerebellum Medulla oblongata: the main line of traffic for tracts ascending from the spinal cord and descending from the higher centers of the brain Medulla: contain nuclei that maintain the regular life rhythms of the heartbeat, rising and falling diaphragm, constricting and dilating blood vessels Reticular formation (reticular activating system): in the core of the brain – arousal and alertness Cerebellum: receives sensory information from the inner ear and from muscles, tendons, jointsthe information received and integrated relates to balance, posture, equilibrium and to the smooth coordination of the body when in motion Limbic system: controls the visceral and physical expressions of emotion – quickened heartbeat and respiration, trembling, sweating and alterations in facial expressions, appetite and other primary drives ADHD: experience delays in cortical maturation, as reflected by attaining peak levels of cortical thickness at an older age Prefrontal cortex is responsible for working memory and attention Due to a dopamine deflect (genetic) A specific abnormality in reward-related circuitrylead to shortened delay gradients Deficits in temporal processing that result in high intrasubject intertribal variability Deficits in working memory Biological Approaches to Treatment: Tranquilizers: reduce tension associated with some anxiety disorders, by stimulating GABA neurons to inhibit other neural systemscreate the physical symptoms of anxiety Antidepressants: increase neural transmission in neurons that use serotonininhibit other the reuptake of serotonin Antipsychotic drugs: treat schizophrenia by reducing the activity of neurons that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter by blocking their receptors Stimulants: treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorderincrease the levels of several neurotransmitters that help children pay attention Contemporary approaches: attempts to make inferences about the functioning of the nervous system/ to “see” the actual structure and functioning of the brain and other parts of the nervous system Evaluation the Biological Paradigm: Reductionism: the view that whatever is being studied can and should be reduced to its most basic elements/ constituents Once basic elements are organized into more complex structures/ systems, the properties of these systems cannot be deduced from the properties the constituents The whole is often greater than the sum of its parts Jeol Paris: the applied neuroscience model is most appropriate to severe mental disorders, psychiatric disorders cannot be reduced to abnormality in neuronal/ molecular activity, and psychological problems need to be understood at multiple levels Behavioral paradigm and cognitive approachescombined/ integrated into he cognitive behavioral paradigm The Behavioral perspective: John B. Watson: introspection – focus on behaviorism by extrapolating from the work of psychologists who were investigating learning in animals The dominant focus of psychology switched from thinking to learning Behaviorism: focus on observable behavior rather than on consciousness Classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov): a dog was given meat powder to make it salivatethe dog began to salivate when it saw the person who fed itthe dog’s reactions systematically The meat powder automatically elicits salivation with no prior learning Powder – unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Salivation – unconditioned response (UCR) When the offering of meat powder is preceded several times by the ringing of a bellthe sound of bell can elicit the salivary response The sound of the bell – conditioned stimulus (CS) Salivary response – conditioned response (CR) As the number paired presentations of the bell and the meat powder increases, the number of salivations elicited by the bell alone increases Extinction: when the repeated soundings of the bell are later not followed by meat powderfewer and fewer salivations are elicited, and the CR gradually disappears Operant conditioning: Applied to behavior that operated on the environment Law of effect: shifting the focus from the linking of stimuli and responses to the relationships btw responses and their consequences/ contingencies Discriminative stimulus: external events that in effect tell an organism that if it performs a certain behavior, a certain consequence will follow Positive reinforcement: the strengthening of a tendency to respond by virtue of the presentation of a pleasant event (positive reinforce) Negative reinforcement: strengthens a responsethe removal of an aversive event Modeling: (vicarious learning) Learn by watching and imitating others Albert Bandura: witnessing someone perform certain activities can increase/ decrease diverse kinds of behavior Focused on social learning learning theory and on the idea that much of what we learn is through the process of imitation 4 key processes in observational learning: Attention – notice the model’s behavior Retention – remember the model’s behavior Reproduction – personality exhibiting the behavior Motivation – repeat imitated behaviors if they received positive consequences Self-efficacy: an individual’s perceived sense of being capable Self-regulati
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