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Ch 10.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

Ch 10-Psyb20 Theories of intelligence -intelligence is multi faceted and both genetic and environmental influences contribute to a person’s intelligence -how important is a childs IQ in predicting its success in school and real life situations? The factor analytic approach -intelligence is a unitary single ability that affect everything a person does -factor analysis: a statistical procedure that can determine which of several factors or scores, are closely related to one another without overlapping each other’s contribution -spearman intelligence is composed of a general (g) and a number of specific factors (s). -g as general mental energy or ability that was involved in all cognitive tasks, and he saw s factors as unique to particular tasks -person with high g performed generally well on all tasks and variations in her performance on different tasks could be attributed to the possession of varying amounts of the s factors -people who do well on one kind of cognitive test,are likely to do well on other such tests -children vary both in overall level of intellectual ability and in how skilled they are in specific aspects of cognitive functioning The information-processing approach: sternbergs triarchic theory -understand intelligence, we must assess how individuals use info processing capabilities -triarchic theory of intelligence: proposes 3 major components of intelligent behave: info processing skills, experience with a given task or situation and the ability to tailor one’s behavior to the demands of a context. -info processing skills: require encoding, storing and retrieving varying kinds of info -experience: how much exposure and practice and individual has had with a particular intellectual task Context: recognizes that intelligence cannot be separated from the situation in which it is used -one dimension on which the intelligence of a particular behavior can be measured is its suitability and effectiveness in a particular setting -triarchic was extended into successful intelligence:which considers intelligence in relation to the ability of an individual to require three abilities: analytic abilities (reasoning), creative abilities (devising new ways of addressing issues and concerns) and practical abilities (everyday activities, tacit knowledge common sense)- it is learned by observing others and guides intelligent behavior -these are used in the school curriculum and when applied in the class setting may benefit children’s learning and also enhance their motivation to learn Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligences -theory of multiple intelligence: gardener proposes that human beings possess 8 kinds of intelligence: linguistic, logical math, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and naturalist and a ninth form spiritually or existential intelligence. -linguistic mathematical and spatial are similar to the kinds assessed on intelligence tests, the others are important but not really been studied -each type of intelligence has its own developmental course in terms of perception, learning and memory. (they are used in combination) -critics: gardners intelligence may not all be separate entitie, some may be closely tied to others whereas others may be distinct and his theory is somewhat circular, ex: Michael is a good dancer? Y because of his bodily kinesthetic intelligence which defines a good dancer, so Michael is a good dancer because he is a good dancer -his theory however has been used to improve public education (PIFS- designed to teach the tacit knowledge needed to succeed in school) Testing intelligence -intelligence quotient: an index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform -we can only infer intellectual capatcity from the results of an IQ test, we can measure only performance -3 primary purposes for intelligence testing: academic performance, predicting job performance and general adjustement and health -bayley and wescheler tests are used for detecting probs in dev and require the knowledge that children with fewer advantages than others may not have -we are attempting culture-fair tests which attempt to exclude or minimize the kind of experientially or culturall biased content in IQ tests that could prejudice test taker’s responses Measuring infant intelligence -bayley scales of infant development, infant dev test that include non verbal test items chosen for their ability to measure specific dev milestones -they are for children between 1 month and 3.5 yrs and are used to assess children suspected to be at risk for abnormal development -they are however poor predictors of later cognitive levels because they are primarily on sensorimotor measures -the Fagan test measures info-processing skills, it examines infant intelligenceby measuring the amount of time the infant spends looking at a new object compared with the time he spends lookin at a familiar object -study: with faces, child looks more at the novel faces than those previously presented -this test is therefore culture fair The Stanford-Binet test -emphasizes verbal and performance skills -intelligence was malleable and children’s academic performance could be improved with special programs -Binet and Simon tested higher mental functions such as comprehension, reasoning and judgment as well as skills taught in school -they built into their test age related changes in children’s learning with the aim of tapping children’s competence at different age levels -mental age: which is an index of a childs actual performance level as contrasted with her true age ex: 6year get many items correct a 7yr old would, mental age would be 7 IQ=mental age(MA)/ chronological age (CA) X 100. Average IQ is 100, mental age and chronological are same the Wechsler scales -the Wechsler scales- WPPSI (primary school and preschool), WAIS (adult), WISC (children) -these tests yield separate verbal and performance IQ scores as well as combined full scale IQ score -how children process information, focusing on memory, strategy use and processing speed- these items less influenced by experience with school or certain cultural or economic factors -rather than use mental age, as a basis for estimating intelligence, Wechsler created deviation IQ , computing the averages, IQ the use standard deviation to identify the extent to which non average scores deviate from the norm The Kaufman assessment battery for children -the K-ABC measure info processing skills grouped into 2 categories, sequential processing (solving problems in a step by step fashion) and simultaneous processing (examining and integrating a wide variety of materials in the solution of a problem) -it also assesses the achievement in academic subjects and is culture-fair -if a child fails early items on a subscale, the examiner teachers the child how to completed the items before proceeding to the next Constructing measures of intelligence -psychometrician: makes intelligence tests, and use of tests designed to measure various psychological constructs such as intelligence motivation, achievement,orientation and personality characteristics Development of norms and standards -how is a persons intelligence compared to the others, compared to the average -test norms: are the values that describe the typical test performace of a specific group of people -even though as people grow older, their knowledge increases, they should still be within the norm of those the same age as them, that proves average knowledge -we should always consider how closely the attributes and experiences of the person being tested approximate those of the group that was used to establish the test norms -important that we subject a test to strandardization: the process by which test constructors ensure that testing procedures, instructions and scoring are identical on every testing occasion Test validity and reliability -validity: extent to which a test measures what is claims to measure -criterion validity, is where the tests results are linked to another criteria, so the test results must reflect grades, academic performance, prob ratings… -reliability: degree to which a test yields consistent results over successive administration -to be useful a test’s scores must not fluctuate unpredictably from one administration to another. Stability of measured intelligence -the evidence to date suggests that there is both stability and change in intellectual functioning over time Predictive value of infant testing -most of our information on the consistency of performance on intelligence tests derives from longitudinal studies -these and other early research studies found no significant relation between intelliegence test scores recorded in infancy and those attained later in childhood or even adulthood -prenatal behaviors and child’s own emotionally related characteristics may well have a significant impact on infant intelligence Changes in children’s IQ over time -intelligence tests are fairly reliable predictors of later performance on such tests -high IQ children are likely to show greater amounts of change than low IQ children -different children develop cognitively at different rates of speed, just as they experience physical growth in spurts at different ages -stressful life events can cause at least temporary disruptions in cognitive performance -children who show the most dramatic changes in IQ over time have often experienced major changes in their life -Flynn effect: the general trend toward increase in average IQ test scores across subsequent generations of the twentieth century -children develop cognitively at different rates, most changes in IQ are likely to occur at the ages of 6 and 10 years Why do people differ in measured intelligence -as much as 80% of differences in IQ among people was attributable to genetic or inherited factors and only a small proportion of differences to social-envrionmental factors How much of intelligence is inherited -the proportion of the variability in intelligence attributatble to genetic factors, 40- 50% -50-60% of variability is a function of environmental factors both social and non social -many psychologists disagree -others argue that these estimates depend on the match and the interaction between genetic potential and environmental opportunities (the book said IQ is relatively unchangeable) -many of the notions of intelligence employed in this work as well as the actual measures of IQ themselves, have serious cultural biases that render such results potentially problematic Views that emphasize the heritability of IQ -associative learning: is lower level learning involving such skills as short term memory, rote learning, attention and simple associative skills -cognitive learning: is a higher level learning level involving abstract thinking, symbolic processes, conceptual learning and the use of language in problem solving -most intelligence tests measure cognitive abilities, associative learning is equally distributed across all people but that level II learning is more concentrated in middle class groups and north American groups of European lineage than working class or north American groups of African lineage -because people tend to marry within their own groups, the differences beteen cognitive learning across popln s are measured in IQ tests, will tend to increase over time -IQ gap between racial groups has been decreasing rather than increasing because of mixing Culture and iheritance -it is inappropriate to use estimates of the heritability of intelligence obtained from one group in interpreting finding based on the study of another group -environmental condition will influence the extent to which an inherited ability can be expressed -genes depend on the environment for their expression, poor nutrition disease and stress due to variety of factors, may overwhelm and thus minimize the genetic contribution to intelligence an intellectual performance The malleability of inherited characteristics -finding evidence for genetic influences on intelligence in a population does not suggest that differences among individuals are unchangeable ex: blindness and deafness which we know in some cases are influenced by genetic factors the fact that these conditions may be genetically induced has not interfered with the ability of special education programs to help affected children Environmental factors -stimulation offered to children in these varying condition affect their intellectual development Pregnancy and birth -poor maternal nutrition can have highly influential and lasting effects on a child -along with maternal disease (like AIDS), a mother’s alcoholism or drug addicton, as well as oxygen deprivation -congenital are these factors: deficits or defects that the child incurs in the womb or during the birth process The family -child’s first social environment, influences on her intellectual functioning -a supportive family is linked with higher intellectual functioning -parents who are emotionally verbally responsive to their children encourage their children’s interest in and efforts at learning, report higher IQs -such family environments do no uniformly produce high achieving children, there are non shared environmental factors that can counteract those and
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