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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Current Paradigms and Cultural Factors.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural Factors a paradigm is a set of basic assumptions a general perspective that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject how to gather and interpret relevant data even how to think about a particular subjectThe Role of Paradigms science is bound by the limitations imposed on scientific inquiry by the current state of knowledge it is also bound by whether the scientist can remain objective when trying to understand and study abnormal behaviorparadigma set of basic assumptions that outlines the universe of scientific inquiry specifying both the concepts regarded as legitimate and the methods to be used in collecting and interpreting data a paradigm is the conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist worksparadigms specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the investigation paradigms are an intrinsic part of a science serving the vital function of indicating the rules to be followedThe Biological Paradigmbiological paradigma broad theoretical view that holds that mental disorders are caused by some aberrant somatic process or defect the biological paradigm of abnormal psychology is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesismedical disease modelas applied in abnormal psychology a set of assumptions that conceptualizes abnormal behavior as similar to physical diseases the study of abnormal behavior is linked historically to medicine for a time the germ theory was the paradigm of medicine but it soon became apparent that this theory could not account for all diseases medical illnesses can differ widely from one another in their causes however they all share one characteristic in all of them some biological process is disrupted or not functioning normally that is why we call this the biological paradigm the biological paradigm was the dominant paradigm in Canada and elsewhere from the late 1800s until that least the middle of the 20 centuryContemporary Approaches to the Biological Paradigm psychopathology is viewed as caused by the disturbance of some biological processBehavior Genetics when the ovum the female reproductive cell is joined by the males spermatozoon a zygote or fertilized egg is produced it has 46 chromosomeseach chromosome is made up of thousands of genesgenean ultramicroscopic area of the chromosome the gene is the smallest physical unit of the DNA molecule that carries a piece of hereditary information genes are the carriers of the genetic information DNA passed from parents to childbehavior geneticsthe study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable to differences in genetic makeupgenotypean individuals unobservable genetic constitution the totality of genes possessed by an individual the total genetic makeup of an individual consisting of inherited genes is referred to as the genotype the genotype is fixed at birth genes controlling various features of development switch off and on at specific times to control aspects of physical developmentphenotypethe totality of observable behavioral characteristics of a person eg level of anxiety the phenotype changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction between the genotype and the environment for example an individual may be born with the capacity for high intellectual achievement but whether heshe develops this genetically given potential depends on such environmental factors as upbringing and education hence any measure of intelligence is best viewed as an index of the phenotype various clinical syndromes are disorders of the phenotype not of the genotype only the genotypes for disorders can be inherited whether these genotypes will eventually engender the phenotypic behavior disorder will depend on environment and experience a predisposition aka a diathesis may be inherited but not the disorder itself the study of behavior genetics has relied on 4 basic methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited comparison of members of a family comparison of pairs of twins the investigation of adoptees and linkage analysisfamily methoda research strategy in behavior genetics in which the frequency of a trait or of abnormal behavior is determined in relatives who have varying percentages of shared genetic backgroundchildren receive a random sample of half their genes from one parent and half from the other thus on average siblings as well as parents and their children are identical in 50 of their genetic backgroundst people who share 50 of their genes with a given individual are called 1degree relatives of that person relatives not as closely related share fewer genesnd nieces and nephews shae 25 of the genetic makeup of an uncle and are called 2degree relatives if a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited a study of the family should reveal a relationship between the number of shared genes and the prevalence of the disorder in relativesst if a genetic predisposition to the disorder being studied is present 1 degree relatives of the index cases should have the disorder at a rate higher than that found in the general populationindex cases probandthe person who in a genetic investigation bears the diagnosis or trait in which the investigator is interested twin methodresearch strategy in behavior genetics in which concordance rates of monozygotic and dizygotic twins are compared monozygotic MZ twinsgenetically identical siblings who have developed from a singlefertilized egg sometimes called identical twins MZ twins are always the same sexdizygotic DZ twinsbirth partners who have developed from separate fertilized eggs and who are only 50 alike genetically no more so than siblings born from different pregnancies sometimes called fraternal twins DZ twins can be either the same or the opposite sexconcordanceas applied in behavior genetics the similarity in psychiatric diagnosis or in other traits within a pair of twins when the twins are similar diagnostically they are said to be concordant to the extent that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited concordance for the disorder should be greater in genetically identical MZ pairs than in DZ pairs when the MZ concordance rate is higher than the DZ rate the characteristic being studied is said to be heritable
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