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Chapter 8

developmental psych chapter 8

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Diane Mangalindan

Child psych - chapter 8 - cognitive development: Paiget and Vygotsky Cognition: mental activity through which human beings acquire and process knowledge PAIGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - Jean Piaget - worked with Binet on first intelligence tests - helped Binet develop standardized IQ tests for children - Made 2 observations from intelligence tests - children of same age tended to get same answers wrong - errors of children of particular age differed in systematic ways from other of older or younger children - Revealed distinct age related ways of thinking and understanding world - His studied relied on interviews and observations - present child with problem to solve or questions to answer - ask them to explain their thinking - Used his children for tests, present problem and watch how they behaved - Over development, child acquires qualitatively new ways of thinking and understanding PIAGET'S MAIN TENET: THE CHILD ACTIVELY SEEKS KNOWLEDGE - Child plays active role in acquiring knowledge - behaviourism says it is passive - Argued children actively seek out information - Encounter new information, try to fit it in with knowledge they already know - Construct own understanding - Constructivist view: idea that children actively create their understanding of world as they encounter new information and have new experiences Cognitive organization - Knowledge gets organized into more complex cognitive structures over time - cognitive structure: organized group of interrelated memories, thought and strategies - Built his theory around concept of schema - Schema/schemas: organized units of knowledge that child used to try to understand situations; schema forms basis for organizing actions to respond to environment - Organization: combining simple mental structure into more complex systems - Enables child to act on and interpret world in particular way - Over time with experience, knowledge changes understand new information combine it with current knowledge - Grow older, shift gradually to schemas based on internal mental activities (less physical) - Operations: schemas based on internal mental activities Cognitive adaptation - Adaptation: individual's tendency to adjust to environmental demands - Assimilation: moulding a new experience to fit an existing way of responding to environment - Accommodation: modifying an existing way of responding to environment to fit characteristics of new experience STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - Intellectual growth in progressive changes - Stages of development: comprehensive, qualitative changes over time in way a child thinks - Built through experience - Children do not achieve at the exact same time - but pass through stages in same order - no stage can be skipped Sensorimotor stage - Sensorimotor stage: Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, during which children move from purely reflexive behaviour to beginning of symbolic thought and goal-directed behaviours - 0 TO 2 YEARS - Interact with environment in active ways - Build on basic reflexes , and form way of understanng and ineracting with world - 2 years - form mental representation of objects and events - develop new behaviours and solve problems - Major achievements: development of object concept - must construct knowledge over course of experiences with objects - Object permanence: notion that entities external to child, such as objects and people, continue to exist independent of child's seeing or interacting with them Sub stage 1: basic reflex activity (birth to 1 month) - Basic reflex activity: infant's exercise of and growing proficiency in use of innate reflexes - Grasping and sucking - Exploration through involuntary reflexive behaviours - Birth to 1 month - grasping reflex subsides infants begin to use hands voluntarily - Birth to 1 month - look at objects directly in front of them Sub stage 2: primary circular reactions (1 to 4 months) - Primary circular reactions: behaviours in which infants repeat and modify actions that focus on their own bodies and that are pleasurable and satisfying - Produce repetitive behaviours that are focused on infants own body - Begin by chance - bring finger close to mouth, start sucking, find pleasurable, reproduce behaviour - Display no comprehension that objects exist on their own - Toy vanishes, do not look for it - toy drop, stare at hand and no follow where the toy fell Sub stage 3: secondary circular reactions (4 to 8 months) - Secondary circular reactions: behaviours focused on objects outside infant's own body that infant repeatedly engages in because they are pleasurable - Interesting in making things happen outside of body - Secondary - Repetitive behaviours focused on external objects - Circular - engages in behaviour that please him - shake rattle, hear interesting sound, shake again - Capable of combining schemes - grasping and shaking producing complex behaviours - Show some awareness of object permanence -search of partially visible object or not covered one - if he watches object being covered he will not attempt to retrieve it Sub stage 4: coordination of secondary schemata (8 to 12 months) - Coordination of secondary schemata: infant's combination o different schemes to achieve specific goal - Develops sophisticated combo of behaviours directed toward objects that reflect intentionally - Plan deliberately to attain goal - Schemas can be combined to reach goals - combine hitting and reaching and grasping to move one thing out of way to reach another - beginning of problem solving - Beings to search for completely hidden objects - A not B error - Search for objects hidden in one location, object is moved and child watches, continue to search in first place Sub stage 5: tertiary circular reactions (12 to 18 months) - Tertiary circular reactions: behaviours in which infants experiment with properties o external objects and try to learn how objects respond to various actions - Experiment with external objects - Use trial and error - Capable of producing similar behaviour instead of exact ones - Little scientist - drop objects from different heights to see what happens - Displays understanding of permanence hidden from view - Difficulty following more than one displacement - Hide watch repeatedly behind cushion searched for watch under correct cushion baby watched and Piaget places watch in box, behind cushion and then removed watch from box and put watch behind cushion baby opened box found it empty and did not search for watch behind cushion - A not B error no longer puzzled children - Invisible displacement - something that is nothing within his grasp Sub stage 6: inventing new means by mental combination (18 to 24 month) - Inventing new means by mental combo: children begin to combine schemes mentally, thus relying less on physical trial and error - Symbolic thought: use of metal images to represent people, objects and events - Think symbolically and engage in internal, or mental problem solving - Invent ways to attain goal by mentally combining schemas - no longer limited to physically exploring, manipulating and acting on objects - Deferred imitation: mimicry of action some time after having observed it; requires that child has stored mental image of action - Full acquire concept of object permanence - Make inferences about position of unseen objects - even if objects has been hidden or displaced several times New research directions and explanations of knowledge in infancy - Piaget only measures manual search behaviour - argue that some with limitations (poor hand eye coordination) unable to reveal it in manual search activities - Renee Baillargeon - measure amount of time infants look at stimulation - reveal info about infants understanding of objects before they can search for objects - 6 and 8 month olds - impossible events: solid object move through space occupied by other solid object - infant sat in front of platform setup - inclined ramp, bottom of ramp there was small screen that child can see (can be raised and lowered), screen lowered small car rolled down ramp, disappearing behind screen and reappearing at other side of screen - infants became habituated - possible event - box placed behind track (out of car's path) - impossible event - box placed on top of track (in car's path) - make it look like it rolled thought box - infants looked longer at impossible event - as young as 3.5 months - have awareness of object permanence - Core knowledge systems: ways of reasoning about ecologically important objects and events, such as solidity and continuity of objects - ex., understanding of physical laws (solidity of objects, and what can happen to objects) or event knowledge - Violation of expectations - 4.5 month olds - one possible events and one impossible event - watched tall cylinder being lowered behind screen (occulation condition) OR lowered inside container (containment condition) - possible: objects used to contain cylinder were as tall as cylinder, so physically able to hide from view - impossible: objects used to contain cylinder were smaller, - looked longer at unexpected event - Suggests that infants know more about world than Piaget proposed - early achievements develop over time - learn necessary principles but are unable to grasp subtleties of principles - Argument: infants are biological prepared to learn certain kinds of information - Longer looking time indicated infants can discriminate but does not tell us why - In order to solve other problems, children need more than object knowledge, also need to know how to solve problems Preoperational stage - Preoperational stage: symbolic function promotes learning of language; period is also marked by egocentricity and intuitive behaviour, in which child can solve problems using mental operations but cannot explain how she did so - Symbolic function: ability to use symbols, such as images, words, and gestures, to represent objects and events in world Pre-conceptual sub stage (2 to 4 years) - Pre-conceptual sub stage: child's thought is characterised by animistic thinking and egocentricity - Emergence of symbolic capability is evident - development of language - imaginative play - deferred imitation - Animistic thinking: attribution of life to inanimate objects - Egocentrism: tendency to view world from one's own perspective and to have difficult seeing things from another's viewpoint - Three mountain test - places mountains of different sizes on square table, chairs placed around all four sides of table - child seated in one chair, three other dolls in the other chairs - asked to describe what doll sees from three differ positions - could not identify dolls' view until they reached period of concrete operations (9 to 10 years) - Borke (1975) - made 2 changes to Piaget's design - a) placed familiar things on sides of mountains - b) asked children to rotate small model of display to present view - children as young as 3 were able to identify correct perspective - Hughes - 2 walls that intersected, creating 4 sections
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