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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Intelligence and Achievement

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter  10-­‐  Intelligence  and  Achievement     Theories  of  Intelligence   In  attempt  to  formulate  useful  theories  of  intelligence,  scientists  focused  on  3   primary  issues:     Ø Intelligence  is  unitary  or  multi-­‐faceted     Ø Is  it  determined  by  genetic  or  environmental  factors     Ø Whether  it  predicts  academic  success  or  success  out  of  school   It  is  generally  accepted  today  that  Intelligence  is  multi-­‐faceted  and  is  influenced  by   both  genetic  and  environmental  factors.     The  Factor  Analytic  Approach   -­‐ Early  investigators  believed  intelligence  to  be  unitary  or  a  single  ability  that   affects  everything  a  person  does.  This  idea  was  tested  by  factor  analysis   -­‐ Factor  Analysis  is  a  statistical  procedure  that  determines  which  of  seeral   factors  or  scores  are  closely  related  to  one  another  without  overlapping  each   other’s  contributions.   -­‐ Charles  Spearman  (1927)  à  Proposed  that  intelligence  is  composed  of   genetic  factor  (g)  and  a  number  of  specific  factors  (s):   • Regarded  g  as  mental  energy/  ability  that  was  involved   in  all  cognitive  tasks     • Regarded  s  factors  as  factors  unique  to  particular  tasks   • A  person  high  in  g  was  expected  to  do  well  on  all  tasks   • Variations  in  her  performance  on  different  tasks  could   be  attributed  to  the  possession  of  varying  amounts  od  s   -­‐ Lewis  Thurstone  (1938):  Challenged  this  unitary  concept  of  intelligence.   • Proposed  that  seven  primary  skills  comprise   intelligence:   o Verbal  meaning,  perceptual  speed,  reasoning,   number,  rote  memory,  word  fluency  and  spatial   visualization   -­‐ Carroll  and  other  researchers  recently  have  confirmed  the  existence  of  a   general  factor  of  cognitive  ability     -­‐  Children  vary  both  in  overall  level  of  intellectual  ability  and  in  how  skilled   they  are  in  specific  aspects  of  cognitive  functioning.       The  Information-­‐Processing  Approach:  Sternberg’s  Triarchic  theory   -­‐ Researchers  focus  on  the  processes  involved  in  intellectual  activity   -­‐  Sternberg  (1985,  2001):   o Triarchic  theory  of  intelligence  àProposes  3  components  of   intelligent  behavior   § Information-­‐processing  skills:  Encode,  Store  and  Retrieve   various  info     § Experience  with  a  given  task/  situation   § Ability  to  tailor  one’s  behavior  to  the  demands  of  a  context  –   Intelligence  cannot  be  separated  from  the  situation  in  which  it   is  used   Chapter  10-­‐  Intelligence  and  Achievement       -­‐ Sternberg  expanded  his  theory  into  a  theory  of  successful  intelligence   -­‐ Successful  Intelligence  requires  3  abilities:  analytical  (reasoning  for  correct   answer),  creative  (new  ways  of  addressing  different  concerns),  and   practical  (everyday  life/  common  sense)   -­‐ Much  of  practical  knowledge  used  is  a  tactic  (learnt  through  observation)       Gardner’s  Theory  of  Multiple  Intelligences   Gardner  (2004)   -­‐ Human  beings  possess  8  kinds  of  intelligence   o Linguistic,  Logical-­‐mathematical,  spatial,  musical,  bodily  kinesthetic,   intrapersonal,  interpersonal,  and  naturalist   o Possible  ninth  =  Spiritual/  existential  intelligence   o  Linguistic,  Logical-­‐mathematical,  spatial  –  similar  kinds  of  abilities   assessed  in  intelligence  tests   o Remaining  kinds  have  not  been  widely  studied  yet  but  are  equally   important   o Each  type  of  intelligence  has  its  own  developmental  course  in  terms  of   perception,  learning  and  memory     § i.e.  Linguistic  intelligence  requires  verbal  and  memory  abilities   and  develops  over  time     Testing  Intelligence     Intelligence  Quotient  (IQ):   -­‐ Index  of  the  way  a  person  performs  on  a  standardized  intelligent  test  relative   to  the  way  another  same  aged  person  performs   -­‐ Many  think  that  IQ  is  innate,  but  it  can  change  over  the  lifespan  (modified  by   experience)   -­‐ Although  we  assume  capacity  and  performance  are  related  we  can  only   measure  performance   -­‐ 3  Primary  purposes  of  intelligence  testing:  predicting  academic  performance   predicting  performance  on  the  job,  assessing  general  adjustment  and  health     -­‐ Stanford-­‐Binet  and  Wechsler  tests  à  detect  signs  of  neurological  problems,   mental  retardation,  emotional  distress  in  infants,  children  and  adults   Culture-­‐fair  tests  à  Kaufman  test  &  Raven  Progressive  Matrices  test   -­‐ Exclude/  minimize  the  kind  of  experientially  or  culturally  biased  content  in   IQ  tests     Measuring  Infant  Intelligence   Bayley  Scales  of  Infant  Development  (BSID)  à  Best  known/  widely  used  of  all  infant   tests:  Used  on  infants  and  children  between  1  month  and  3  ½  years   -­‐ Uses  non-­‐verbal  test  items  to  measure  specific  developmental  milestones   -­‐ Used  to  assess  children  suspected  to  be  at  risk  of  abnormal  development     Fagan  Test:  Measures  info-­‐processing  skills:   -­‐ Assessed  processes  such  as  encoding  the  attributes  of  objects,  seeing   similarity  and  differences  in  objects,  and  forming  and  using  mental   representations   Chapter  10-­‐  Intelligence  and  Achievement     -­‐ Fagan  test  examines  an  infant’s  intelligence  by  measuring  the  amount  of  time   the  infant  spends  looking  at  a  new  object  compared  to  the  time  the  child   spends  looking  at  a  familiar  object   o 20  photographs  of  human  faces  are  used  and  arranged  in  pairs     o Examiner  begins  by  showing  one  photograph  of  the  first  pair  for  20   sec   o Then  the  examiner  pairs  the  photograph  with  its  mate  –  and  showing   it  together  for  5  sec  and  then  again  for  another  5  seconds  reversing   the  two  photos  left  to  right   o The  score  received  is  made  up  of  the  total  time  he  spends  looking  at   the  novel  photograph  throughout  the  presentation  of  all  10  pairs.     -­‐ Fagan  tests  predict  later  cognitive  development  better  than  older  tests  but   the  correlations  with  later  development  remain  weak  to  moderate     The  Stanford-­‐Binet  test   Modern  version  of  first  intelligence  test;  emphasizes  verbal  and  performance  skills   -­‐ Binet  and  Simon  believed  that  intelligence  was  malleable  and  that  academic   performance  could  be  improved  with  special  programs   -­‐ Tested  higher  mental  functions  such  as  comprehension,  reasoning,  judgment   as  well  as  skills  taught  in  school  (recalling  details  of  a  story)   -­‐ Binet  originated  mental  age  (index  of  a  child’s  actual  performance  level   contrasted  with  her  true  age)   -­‐ William  Stern  devised  the  formula:  IQ  =  MA/CA  x  100   o MA  =  mental  age    &    CA  =  Chronological  age     The  Wechsler  Scales   Includes:   -­‐ Wechsler  Preschool  and  Primary  school  of  Intelligence  (WPPSI)   -­‐ Wechsler  Intelligence  Scale  for  Children  (WISC)  –  4  version  =  most  recent   o Includes  items  related  to  how  children  process  information,  focusing   on  memory,  strategy  use,  and  processing  speed     o Such  items  were  added  because  they  may  be  less  influenced  by   experience  /  cultural/  economic  factors.       -­‐ Wechsler  Adult  Intelligence  Scale  (WAIS)   -­‐ Yield  separate  verbal  and  performance  IQ  scores  as  well  as  combined  full-­‐ scale  IQ  score   -­‐ Created  the  deviation  IQ  rather  than  using  mental  age  à  Based  on  extensive   testing  of  people  of  different  ages  and  on  the  statistical  computation  of  mean   scores  for  each  age  group   -­‐ Standard  deviation  is  used  to  identify  the  extent  to  which  non-­‐average  scores   deviate  from  norm.   -­‐ Like  Binet  has  100  as  an  average  score     Kaufman  Assessment  Battery  for  Children  (Culture-­‐Fair)   Measures  several  types  of  information-­‐processing  skills  grouped  into  two  categories   -­‐ Sequential  processing  –  Solving  problems  step-­‐by-­‐step   Chapter  10-­‐  Intelligence  and  Achievement       -­‐ Simultaneous  processing  –  Examining  and  integrating  a  wide  variety  of   materials  in  the  solution   -­‐ Also  assesses  achievements  in  academic  subjects     Constructing  Measures  of  Intelligence   Psychometrician  a.k.a  test  constructor  designs  tests  according  to  particular  theories   of  intelligence.     Development  of  Norms  and  Standards   -­‐ Test  norms  =  values  that  describe  the  typical  test  performance  of  a  specific   group  of  people   -­‐ Age  =  critical  factor  for  setting  norms  for  children’s  tests   -­‐ Performance  of  a  test  is  described  in  relation  to  the  same  tests  others  took  in   the  same  age  group   -­‐ Attributes  and  Experiences  should  be  considered  in  evaluating  the   performance   -­‐ Standardization  is  important  so  that  the  procedure,  instructions  and  scoring   are  identical  every  testing  occasion   Test  validity  and  Reliability   -­‐ Test  must  measure  what  its  supposed  to  measure  (Valid)   -­‐ Score  must  be  consistent  (Reliable)   Stability  of  Measured  Intelligence   Tests  like  Binet  and  Wechsler  scales  demonstrated  that  IQ  scores  are  not  stable  over   time     ~  However  the  evidence  for  stability  has  been  mounting  with  newer  tests  that  focus   on  processes  of  intelligent  functioning   Evidence  to  date  suggests  both  stability  and  change  in  intellectual  functioning  over   time   Predictive  value  of  Infant  Testing   -­‐ Studies  like  Berkeley  Guidance  Study,  Berkely  Growth  Study,  and  the  Fel’s   Longitudinal  study  in  which  individuals  were  followed  in  periods  of  time   ranging  from  20-­‐50  years  found  no  significant  relation  between  scores   recorded  in  infancy  and  those  attained  later   -­‐ Recent  tests  focusing  on  information-­‐processing  abilities  found  higher   correlations  with  later  cognitive  measures   Changes  in  Children’s  IQ  over  time   -­‐  Researchers  indicate  that  from  middle  years  of  childhood  onwards  intelligence   tests  are  reliable  predictors  of  later  performance   -­‐  There  is  also  evidence  of  variability  in  children’s  IQ  over  time   -­‐  IQ  changes  over  time  are  influenced  by  the  child’s  development  and  Experience   -­‐  Flynn  effect:  An  increase  in  average  IQ  tests  scores  across  subsequent  generations   of  the  20  century   -­‐  Most  changes  in  IQ  are  likely  to  occur  at  ages  6-­‐10  years       Why  do  people  differ  in  Measured  Intelligence?   Arthur  Jensen  (1969):   Chapter  10-­‐  Intelligence  and  Achievement     -­‐  80%  of  differences  in  IQ  was  attributable  to  genetics,  or  inherited  factors,  and  only   a  small  portion  is  social-­‐environmental  factors   How  Much  Intelligence  is  inherited   Most  estimates  of  heridibility  of  intelligence  –  that  is  –  the  proportion  of  the   variability  in  intelligence  attributable  to  factors  have  supported  a  figure  of  40-­‐50%   for  middle-­‐class  suggesting  that  the  remaining  50-­‐60%  of  variability  is  a  function  of   environmental  and  social/non-­‐social  factors   -­‐ Intelligence  is  in  part  genetically  based  even  though  environmental  factors   may  have  influence   Views  that  Emphasize  the  Heritability  of  IQ   Arthur  Jensen  proposed  2  types  of  learning  –  both  inherited  but  distinct     -­‐ Associative  Learning  à  (level1/  lower  level  learning)  involving  shot-­‐term   memory,  rote  learning,  attention,  and  simple  associative  skills   o Equally  distributed
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