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Chapter 13

Chapter 13: Personality Disorders.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 13 Personality Disorders Etiology of BPD - Object-Relations Theory o Concerned with way children incorporate values & images of important people (manner in which children identify with people to whom they have strong emotional attachments) o These introjections (object representations) become part of person’s ego – but may come in conflict w/wishes, goals, & ideals of developing adult o May be due to development of instable egos – in touch with reality but engage in splitting (defense mechanism) – dichotomizing objects into all good or all bad & failing to integrate the negative & positive views of a person or self into a whole - Biological Factors o Genetic component o Linked with neuroticism (heritable) o Low levels of serotonin - Linehan’s Diathesis-Stress Theory o BPD develops when people have biological diatheses for having difficult controlling their emotions are raised in a family environment that is invalidating  ‘emotional dysregulation’ can interact w/experiences that invalidate developing child  BPD o Invalidating: Person’s wants & feelings are discounted & disrespected, & efforts to communicate one’s feelings are disregarded (or punished) o Holding in emotion  leading to major outburst o Childhood physical & sexual abuse Etiology of Histrionic Personality Disorder Chapter 13 - Parents of HPD children – talked about dirty things (sex) but behaved as if it was exciting & desirable Etiology of Narcissistic Personality Disorder - Weak egos, failure to develop healthy self-esteem o When child not valued for self-worth but rather as a means to foster parents’ self-esteem o Parents do not respond with approval to displays of competency - Constant attention seeking & adulation – sensitive to criticism & fearful of failure, angry with others & reject if they fall short of unrealistic expectations - Inner lives impoverished b/c they actually think very little of themselves Etiology of Anti-Social Personality Disorder & Psychopathy - Childhood Roots of Psychopathy o Genetically influenced psychopathic personality in adolescents  strong predictor of adult anti-social behavior o Female youth offenders are more likely to have history of psychiatric hospitalization if high psych
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