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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Development.docx

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Diane Mangalindan

Chapter 1 Sureka M Child Development: Themes, Theories, and Methods Child Development: a sub-area of the discipline of developmental psychology; identifies changes in the child’s cognitive, emotional, motor and social capacities; help uncover the processes that underlie these changes Themes of Development 1. origins of human behavior 2. the pattern of developmental change over time, 3. the individual and contextual factors that define and direct child development 1. Origins of Human Behavior  biological vs. environmental influences  Arnold Gesell (1928): believed course of development was largely predertmined by biological factors o Focused on maturation  John B Watson (1928): placed emphasis strictly on the environment o Assumed biological placed no restrictions on the ways environment can shape the course of a child’s development o Believed properly organizing and environ. one can produce a genius or a criminal  Modern developmentalists: humans supports interaction between biological and environmental factors over the course of development o Influences such as parents, peers, or teachers do not simply mold the child; instead, children actively influence and modify the action of people they interact with 2. Pattern of Developmental Change over Time  Continuity vs. Discontinuity  Continuity o Some view development as a continuous process with no abrupt changes from one to the next, rather all new events build on each other  Discontinuity o Some view as a series of discrete steps where behaviours get reorganized into new sets of behaviours 3. Forces that affect Developmental Change  Individual characteristics vs. contextual and cultural influences  Example: children with aggressive personality traits may often seek out contexts in which they can display these characteristics; joining karate instead of chess Theoretical Perspectives on Development  Help organize and integrate existing information into coherent and interesting accounts of how children develop  They generate testable hypotheses or predictions about children’s behavior 1. structural-organismic 2. learning 3. dynamic systems 4. contextual 5. ethological and evolutionary views 1. Structural-Organismic  Freud and Piaget introduced structuralism and followed the structural- organismic perspective o The organism goes through an organized or structural series of stages, or discontinuous changes, over the course of development  Psychodynamic Theory o Introduced by Sigmund Freud o Emphasizes how the experiences of early childhood shape the development of adult personality o ID: the first component of the personality to evolve, operates on pleasure o EGO: rational, about satisfying needs and getting pleasure, by goes by it in a more socially acceptable manner o SUPEREGO: internalization of parental or societal values, morals and roles o ID, EGO, SUPEREGO involved 5 stages  Oral: first year, experience satisfaction by putting things in their mouth  Anal: second and third year, learn to satisfy their needs, first experience with discipline and authority  Phallic: alerts children to sexual differences, increase sexual urges arouses curiosity  Latency: sexual urges repressed; empahasis on education and the beginnings of concern for others; make friends  Genital: altruistics love joins selfish love; sexual urges emerge and are directed towards peers  Piagetian Theory o Introduced by Jean Piaget o Uses two basic principles: organization and adaptation o Organization: view that human intellectual development is a biologically organized process; childs understanding of the world changes in an organized way over the course of development o Adaptation: describes the process by which intellectual change occurs as the human mind becomes increasingly adapted to the world o All children go through 4 stages of cognitive development  Infants- rely on their sensory and motor abilities  Preschool- rely more on mental structures and symbols, especially language  School years- rely more on logic  Adolescents- can reason about abstract ideas 2. Learning Perspectives  Behaviourism o learning of behaviors; based on experience and is continuous o Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which two stimuli are presented together, and later unfamiliar stimuli gets same reaction as familiar one (Pavlov and Watson)  Little Albert experiment: learned fear response to a white rabbit, he became afraid of it when it was presented with a loud sound, then just afraid of rabbit alone o Operant Conditioning: learning depends on consequences of behavior  Certain behavior repeated due to reward  Certain repressed due to withdrawal of privileges  Cognitive Social Learning Theory o Also learn by observing and imitating others  Bobo doll Experiment: adults threw doll around and children imitated t o Their imitations isn’t direct; selectively choose what to imitate o Four processes govern how well a child will learn by observing another person  First they must attend to a model’s behavior  Second, the child must retain the observed behavior
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