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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 notes child psychology.odt

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Chapter 12 Expanding the Social Worlds: Peers and friends (first 2 pages on notebook) Social Exchange among toddlers Read page 470 • socializing ang getting into conflicts seem to go to go together • as children become familiar with each other, their early peer interactions tend to develop into relationships • In relationships two acquaintances share an ongoing successions of interactions that continues over time and that affects each other ◦ Hildly Ross have found that toddlers develop relationships based on positive and negative exchanges Preschool and Elementary School Society • Ellis and colleagues found that 400 children they observed were alone 26 percent of the time, with other children 46% and with adults and peers 15% - peer interactions • Larson found that among both Europenan-American andAfrican American preadolescences and adolescents, talking with peers increased dramatically between the ages of 10 and 15 ◦ U.S. Teens spent twice as much time talking to each other then Korean and Japanese teens How do Peers Help to Socialize Children? Modelling Behaviours • peers influence each other by serving as social models • child acquire knowledge behaviours by simply observing the behaviour and actions of their peers – (ex. Standing when others do so as the teacher walks in) • Children also imitate older, more powerful, and more presigous peer models – can be important for maintaining social interactions Teaching and Reinforcing • to reinforce is to pay attention to another behaviour, to praise or criticize it or to share in it • as the concept of “peer pressure” implies childhood and adolescent peers can convnce their compatriots to take risks and engage in deviant behaviour • children respond to negative reinforcenment Social Comparison and the Developing Self • peers may help a child develop her self-image and self-esteem by providing standards against which to measure herself. • There are few objective ways to rate one's own characteristics, abilities and values, and children turn to other people, particularly peers, for help. • Through social comparison children watch and talk with their peers and the use what they have learned to evaluate themselves • how well children think they “stack up” against their peers plays a major role in development o self-esteem PEER ACCEPTANCE How do we study Peer acceptance ? • Acommon way of tudying peer acceptance is to asses the status of the children in a specific group ◦ to do this developmental psychologisits use sociometric techniques in which they ask children to rate peers on scales on agressiveness or helpfulness or to compare peers as to likeability or to identify those whom they like best ▪ as insiders of the group peers see a wider range of relevant behaviours than do aduls nd ▪ 2 peers have extended varied experience with each other ▪ 3 by gathering data and infro from many individuals who have interacted with teh chid who is the subject of study, we prevent any single individuals view from dominating the results • the nominations technique in which an investigator begins to ask each child in a group to name a specific number ( 2 or 3) of peers whome he lies “especially” and the same number of peers whom he does not like very much, next the investigator sums the scores of all “like most” and “like least” choices and assigns children to one of several groups ◦ popular children are those who have recieved the greatest number of positive nominations and the fewest negative ones ▪ children whom peers judge as popuar are friendly and assertive but not diruptive or agressive – good communication; they help set rules and norms for groups, they engage in more prosocial behaviour ◦ Average children recieve some of both types of nominations, but neither as well iked as popular peers nor disliked as peers in other categories ◦ neglected children are isolated, often friendless children but are not necessarily disliked by their classmates; they recieve few like or dislike votes – they are less agressive, less talkatve and more withdrawn ◦ controversial children recieve many positive nominations but also a lot of negative ones ◦ rejected children recieve many negative nominations ◦ agressive rejected children are chracterized by agressiveness, poor self-control and behavioural problems, although their self perceptions are not poor ◦ non-agressive rejected children tend to be anxious, withdrawn, and socially unskilled and have been found to perieve themselves as less competent Factors thatAffect Peer Status • factors of children's appraisal for one another – most signifcant facor is a child's cognitive and social skills – his ability to intiate interactions with other's, to communicate effectively and interact comfortably with them to be responsive to others' interestes and behaviours and to co- operate with other in play and school activities Acquiring Social Cognitive skills • to feel comfortable approaching a new social situatons, a child needs to want to interact with others, to feel confident that she has something useful to contribue to the group, and to be interested in learning what others in the group are like Processing and Acting on Social Info • Crick and Dodge devised the model of social information processing (fig 12-3) ** pg. 477 ◦ Dodge and co-workers compared 5 to 7 years olds who were rated either scially competent or socially incompetent bu their teachers and peers ◦ presented children with video descried in which a child is trying to join the play of two other children and asked particiapnts what they would do in the 5 stges ◦ incompetent children were less likely to notice and interpret the cues correct;y, generated fewer competent responses, chose less appropriate responses and in the next phase of the experiment were less skiled at actually enacting or carrying out the behaviour ◦ the researchers then asked the children to particiapate in actual peer group entry rasks with two peers from their classroom – measures at each of 5 stages in the model predicted children's competence and success at this task : children who understod what to do were better at real task of gaining entry into the peer group • rejected children, especially agressive ones, tend to view others in hostile terms and to make hostile attributions about other peers' intentions not all children have the same goals and strategies in social situations • children differ in the way they percieve themselves and in the way they explan why they are sometimes successful at a task and sometimes unsuccessful • Dweck who has conducted extnsive research on children's implicit theories of personality, suggests that one way to circumvent the latter kind of thinking is to prevent the child from seeing a task or problem as a measure of her ability and instead to focus the child's attention on just trying out something new and possibly useful • penpal study pg. 478* 1. people in general tend to attribure positive qualities to those who are physically attractive, and children and adolescents go right along with this tendency • children expect to find characteristics such as friendliness, willingness, to share, fearlesness, and self-sufficiency in good looking peers ad often think unnatractive children are agressive, anti-social, and mean • attractive children are judged more positively (higher on social appeal, adjustment, and interpersonal competence) then unattractive children ◦ more attrative children were treated more positively and less negatively by other even by those that don't know them We Like to have (boys) (girls) • the tendency to gender-exlusivity increases throughout elementary school and its not unil early adolescence thatt children once again choose oppositie gender companiions – this time as dates • grade 3 and 4 children who had cross-gender friendships as well as sam egender friendships were among the most well accepted, socially skilled children in the group ◦ children whose priary friendships or only friendships were with teh opposite sex peets were less well accepted, judged, less skilled academically and socially and tended to report lower self-esteem What's in a Name ? OrAnAge? • Children learn very quickly what given names are popular among their peers and thus “acceptable” • In wstern societies, play groups tend to be age graded – NortthAmericans spend morst of their time with same age peers • in other cultures old children often play with younger ones and take care of them • children's typical preference for play with same-age peer does serve a special role in social development Consequences of Being Unpopular • children are creative and cruel in the ways they reject children whom they dislike – exclude others from their group or activities; sometimes, children bully or dominate others in the classroom, or can tell another child they dislike a third child, and child can directly attack a peer either verbally or physically Short and Long term Consequences of Rejections • Being unpopular among peers can lead ot both short-term and long-term problems • lonlieness among children is one of the primary results of being rejected or ignored • unpopular children report feeling lonely and socially dissastisfied • research suggests that that although neglected children may be no lonelier than average children, rejected children are much more likely than average or neglected children to feel lonely • being actively disliked by many of ones' peers can lead to strong feelings of isolation and alienations, although non-aggressive rejected children are much more likely to feel lonlier than aggressive rejected children • according toAsher being accepted by only a few peers can cause poor achievement, school avoidance, and lonlieness ◦ the researchers found that children who were poorly accepted by in their peers were less co-operative in the classroom than well-accepted children and were also more likely to drop out of school entirely and to develop patters of criminal activity ◦ chronically victamized children in late elementary school were more depressed at the age of 23 and more susceptible to being harrased by peers at work or school ◦ shy children to be slower than non-shy children in establishing carreers, marrying, or becoming partners Can Peer Status Change? • Unfortunately, social standing tends to remain stable across time and in different situations, • one short-term lonitudinal study found that the social satus of Canadian children moving from elementary to middle schill remained stable particularly for rejected children • looking long-term in a study bu Coie and Dodge both popular and neglected children were fairly stable in their social standing over a five-year span • though popular children sometimes lost their high stats and neglected children occasionally gained some acceptance ◦ once a child was rejected she was more likely than others to maintain this status over a considerable time span • the stability of peer rejecion appears to be even greater among kindergartners than the stability of any other category of peer acceptance – this is a result of reputational bias or the tendency of children to interpret peers' Promoters of Peer acceptance : Parents and Teachers • parents can daw on a variety of resources in helping children develop health peer relationships ◦ fig.12-7 – parent and child as interactive partnets – parent as coach and educator – parents as faciltator of social interactions = peer-peer interactions ◦ fig 12-7shows they start as trusted partners with whom their children can begin to acquire social skills of interaction ◦ parents of well-accepted children interacted in a positive and agreeable manner with their children and were concenerned with the child's feelings as well as their own ◦ in contrast parents of rejected children exhibited more negative and controlling behaviours with their children ◦ in extreme cass, parents who abuse a child ofren prevent this child from devloping a health relationship with peers – fig 12-8 – the more extensive the abuse the more likely a child was to be rejected by ppers ◦ maltreated children, especially if the abuse oc
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