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Chapter 8

Thorough Notes on Chapter 8

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Semester
Fall

Description
Developmental Chapter 8 Notes Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development As children participated in standardized IQ tests, he noticed that: (1) children of the same age tended to get the same answers wrong, and; (2) he observed that the errors of children of a particular age differed in systematic ways from those of older or younger children Piaget thought that these errors revealed distinct age-related ways of thinking and understanding the world To study children's thinking, he relied on two methods: Interviews and Observations Interviews: He'd present a problem to a child and ask them to explain their thinking in coming up with an answer Observations: Present a problem and watch how children behaved as they tried to solve it Children play an active role in acquiring knowledge. They actively seek out information. In behaviourism, children are passive as they wait for info (or stimuli) from their environments Constructivist view: Children actively create their understanding of the world as they encounter new information and have new experiences He provided approximate ages at which developmental milestones/achievements occur Cognitive Organization He believed that, over the course of development, children's knowledge of the world gets organized into increasingly more complex cognitive structures He built much of his theory on the concept of the schema(s): an organized unit of knowledge, and collectively, schemas form the knowledge base that a person uses to understand and interact with the environment Organization: combining simple mental structures into more complex systems As children grow older and gain experience, they shift gradually from using schemata based on overt physical activities to those based on internal mental activities He called these mental schemata operations: schemas based on internal mental activities) Suggested 4 stages of Cognitive Development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations) CognitiveAdaptation Children continually modify their schemas in relation to their own experiences. This process is referred to as adaptation: adjusting to environmental demands It always involves determining how new information fits with existing knowledge as well as how existing knowledge may need to change to incorporate new information To understand a new experience, children at first try assimilation: apply their existing schemas to the new experience However, babies will sometimes encounter an object that is hard to assimilate. Ex: they encounter a large inflated ball that is very difficult to grasp and suck. Infant must modify her strategy for exploring objects (her looking-grasping-sucking scheme) and adopt a new approach using the method of accomodation: modifying an existing way of responding to the environment to fit the characteristics of a new experience Ex: she may hold the ball in her arms instead of her hands and lick it with her tongue instead of trying to suck on itSensorimotor Stage Sensorimotor Stage: First stage of cognitive development, during which children move from purely reflexive behaviour to the beginnings of symbolic thought and goal-directed behaviours This stage involves the learning of object permanence: the realization that objects continue to exist even when they're out of sight 6 sub-stages of the sensorimotor period: Substage 1: Basic Reflex Activity (Birth to 1 month) Infant becomes more proficient in the use of their innate reflexes Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1 to 4 months) Infants repeat and modify actions that focus on their own bodies and that are pleasurable and satisfying Ex: a baby accidentally brings finger close to mouth and starts sucking on it. Baby finds this pleasurable and attempts to reproduce the exact behaviour Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions (4 to 8 months) Behaviours focused on objects outside the infant's own body that the infant repeatedly engages in because they're pleasurable So this one involves repetitive behaviours focused on external objects, hence secondary Ex: Infant shakes the rattle, likes the sound, so will continue to shake rattle over again Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Schemata (8 to 12 months) By combining schemas, child is able to plan deliberately to attain a goal Ex: Combine hitting schema with her reaching and grasping schemas to move one toy out of the way so she can reach another TheA-not-B error is common
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