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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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Chandan Narayan

Language- a communication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various, regulated ways to produce an infinite number of messages. Communicative competence- The ability to convey thoughts, feelings, and intentions in an organized, culturally patterned way that sustains and regulates human interactions. Productive Language- the productions of speechcommunications, two way process, sending and receiving messages. Receptive Language- Understanding the speech of others. Components of Language (4 Main Areas, PGSP) Phonology- The system of sounds that a particular language uses. Includes phonemes and the rules of how we put phonemes together to form words and rules about the proper intonation patterns for phrases and sentences. (phonemes- 9K0-,8L.:3L9841,O,3J:,J08 phonetic system; phonemes are the smallest sound units that affect meaning)- changing the initial phones of bat makes it into cat. Phonemes are generative- which means they can be applied to different cases. Semantics- The study of word meanings and word combinations, as in phrases, clauses, and sentences. Grammar- The structure of a language; made up of morphology and syntax. Morphology- 9K089:41,O,3J:,J0882,OO089:3L984120,3L3J472475K0208,341 ,O,3J:,J0882,OO089:3L984120,3L3J8:.K,8,5701L[,8:11L[47,7449Z47 Syntax- The subdivision of grammar that prescribes how words are to be combined into phrases, clauses, and sentences. (ex. Negation, interrogations, possession, subjectorder.) Pragmatics- The set of rules that specifies appropriate language for particular social contexts. Theories of Language Development Most theorist have interactionist view (both bio and enviro important) The learning View: Skinner said that its all about reinforcement, when kids babble something that sounds like a real word (close approximations), parents encourage it until they learn how to speak properly. Bandura said its all about imitation, kids pick up things by directly imitating what they hear, and then use generalization and reinforcement to apply it to new situations. This view has a lot of problems though- 1. # of stimulus- response connections (baby sounds-parent reinforcement) needed is so much that this 574.088Z4:O39-05488L-O0L3,OL109L20 ,9:7,OL8989:L084398:554790L9K07 mothers just as likely to reinforce truthful sentences as grammatically correct ones. 3. ,39570L.9,OOthe possible babblesutterances and the environments that cause them. 4. ,390[5O,L3470741O0,73L3J:3L;078,OONL8O0,73,.9L;0.43897:.9L438-014705,88L;0 www.notesolution.com
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