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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

Information processing approach- a perspective on cognition and cognitive development in which the human mind is likened to a computer, processing information from the environment through perception and attention (input), encoding it in memory (storage and retrieval), and applying information to the solution of problems (software). A primary quality of human cognition system is flexibility. However, two main limitations: amount of info that can be processed at one time and the speed of processing info. Computer can process info much faster than human mind, but computer has singular design and solves only specific types of problems in specific programmed way, human mind is more flexible and considers broad ranges of factors, which is why it takes much longer. Overall human mind has lots of potential. Four basic assumptions about info processing (Siegler and Alibali): 1. Thinking is info processing- mental activity involves taking in info to mind and operating on it to make it usable. Questions about attention and memory and how it changes with age are the main concepts of this assumption. 2. Mechanisms/processes of change that underlie the processing of information- children getting better at encoding info is a mechanism and helps solve problems better. 4 key mechanisms of info processing are encoding, strategy construction, automatization, and generalization. 3. Cognitive development is self modifying process- child uses strategies from earlier problem solutions to modify responses to new problems. 4. Careful task analysis is crucial- L3;4O;0807747,3,O\8L8ZK070\4:Z,9.K,.KLO/¶82L89,N0890,.K9K02Microgenetic analysis- a very detailed examination of how a child solves a problem over a single learning episode or over several episodes that occur close in time. 3 Info processing Models and approaches: Multi-store model- a model of info processing in which info is depicted as moving through a series of processing units-sensory register, short term memory, and long term memory-in each of which it may be stored, either fleetingly or permanently. Sensory register- the mental processing unit that receives info from the environment and stores it fleetingly. This is the first step and info stored in raw form (visually, aurally and very briefly/1 second, stays the same through age except for auditory sensory storage across infancy/childhood) Short term memory/working memory- the mental processing unit in which info may be stored 902547,7LO\9K0³Z47N85,.0´419K02L3/ZK070,/0.L8L432:89-02,/094/L8.,7/L31o or to transfer it to permanent storage in long term memory. It is the second step in which info is transformed/encoded into a mental representation in storage. Without rehearsal or effort, this info is lost in 15-30 seconds. Faster rehearsal with age= more storage. Long term memory- The mental processing unit in which information (about objects, events, rules, types of problems and ways to solve them) may be stored permanently and from which it may later be retrieved. Stores all strategies too. Memory improves with age- you can pronounce more words faster and remember more words as you get older. Connectionist Models- info processing approaches that describe mental processes in terms of the interconnections of the neural network. These models emphasize biological components of info processing (Neural Networks). info is described as elaborate set of neural connections and thinking is processing the info as it spreads throughout the network. (this is also called parallel distributed processing.) www.notesolution.com neo-Piagetian theories- theories of cognitive development that reinterpret Piaget’s concepts from an info processing perspective. involves the two features of info processing: improvements in memory capacity and executive control. executive control structure (ECS)- according to Case, a mental blueprint or plan for solving a class of problems. Has three components: a representation of the problem, a representation of the goal of the problem, and representation of strategy for attaining the goal. examples- sensorimotor control structures (0-1.5yrs) ECS is a combo of physical objects and motor actions, a child makes a mental representations (sensory) linked with physical movements (motor). Rational control structures (1.5-5yrs) involves concrete mental images and representations of knowledge and acting on it, ECS now includes cause and effect statements and explicit goal structures. Child may remember a scary face from before (representation) and then draw it (act on representation) Dimensional Control Structures (5-11yrs) involves dimensions, logical processing, abstract representation and acting on it with simple transformations. A child may realize two friends don’t like each other (abstract representation) then tell them if they were friends problems would be solved (simple transformation). Abstract control structures (11-18.5yrs) builds on the DCS and and perform higher order reasoning tasks and more complex transformations, child realizes direct friendships is too rare (abstract representation) so design activities indirectly to cause friendships (complex transformation). Cognitive processes- ways that the human mental system operates on information. focuses on gradual and quantitative changes in mental functioning. 4 critical processes for development of info processing system. 1.Encoding- the transformation of info from the environment into a lasting mental representation. Mental Representation- info stored in some form (verbal, pictorial) in the cognitive system after the person has encountered it in the environment. Scripts represents a series of events based on common daily experiences, and used to understand new events and generate predictions about how they will unfold. 2.Strategies- conscious, cognitive or behavioural activities that are used to enhance mental performance. Examples- counting strategies like the count-all rule: where you answer 3+14 by starting with 3 and counting 14 more to reach 17, or the more efficient min rule- where you start with 14, the larger number to reach 17 faster. 3. Automatization- the process of transforming conscious, controlled behaviours into unconscious and automatic ones. (learning to drive a manual car, or multiplication tables) 4. Generalization- the application of a strategy learned while solving a problem in one situation to a similar problem in a new situation. Executive control process- a cognitive process that serves to control, guide, and monitor the success of a problem solving approach a child uses. (changes in prefrontal cortex from age 3-12 are crucial for ECP development) www.notesolution.com Chi proposed that knowledge plays a greater role in memory than memory capacity in children vs adults in remembering chess positions and numbers. chess playing kids remember more positions than non chess playing adults so needed much fewer trials for perfect recall, but for remembering numbers adults were much better than kids. Overall expertise in a domain enhances cognitive processing in children but not different domains. Significant Cognitive Abilities Attention- the identification and selection of particular sensory input for more detailed processing. Infants have really short attention spans but marked differences start to occur after age 3. from 2- 3 months attention shifts from external contours to internal features. from 3-9 months increasing control of attention, at 9 months can use attention to solve problems like getting toys behind barriers. duration of attention increases and distractibility decreases. Studies show that older/school age children perform better on learning tasks when there are visual or auditory distracters present than when they are not present. Selective attention- a strategy in which a person focuses on some features of the environment and ignores others. (occurs at 2-3 months of age). processing of irrelevant info increases slightly until age 11/12 (junior high) and then decreases rapidly but attention efficiency for relevant info increases overall. planning- the deliberate organization of a sequence of actions oriented toward achieving a goal. combines with attention as you get older to allow solving of far more complex problems. Elaine Vurpillot classic study had household items under household pictures vs animals under cage pictures, and 3 year olds looked under everything even though only asked for animals and older kids ignored house pictures cuz they knew whe
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