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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 6: Emotional Development and Attachment Early Emotional Development - Emotions are: a) Subjective reactions to the environment b) Usually experienced cognitively as either pleasant or unpleasant c) Generally accompanied by some form of physiological arousal d) Often communicated to others by some behaviour or action Why Are Emotions Important? LO1 - Has a wide variety of functions in live of children 1) Means of letting others know how we feel 2) Our success in communicating our emotions and learning to interpret others emotions = our social success Just as we have intellectual or cognitive intelligence, we develop emotional intelligence as well - Linked to mental and physical health Children who are excessively sad and despondent = develop other problems: poor concentration and withdrawal from social interaction w/ others In extreme cases: childs self worth deteriorates Children reared in environments that are emotionally and socially depriving E.g., orphanages = develop later problems w/ management of stress and anxiety Difficulty moderating their reactions to stress = heightened levels of cortisol (biological marker of stress response) Even in ostensibly normal homes = suffer impaired physical health because of emotional hostility between parents Primary and Secondary Emotions LO2 - Primary: emerge early in life and dont require introspection or self- reflection E.g., fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness, and interest - Secondary: emerge later in development and depend on our sense of self and our awareness of other individuals reactions to our actions E.g., pride, shame, guilt, jealousy, and embarrassment Perspectives on Emotional Development - Genetic-maturational, learning, and functionalist perspective All overlap to some degree The Genetic-Maturational Perspective - Emotions seen as products of biological factors - Twin studies support this view Identical twins show greater similarity than fraternal in earliest times of first smiles and amount of smiling each engages - Studies of smiling in premature infants support this view in onset of smiling Normal conceptual age (age since conception) of newborn is 40 wks and most full term babies smile about 6 wks after theyre born (conceptual age of 46 wks) Premature born at 34 wks often dont smile till 12 wks (also conceptual age of 46wks) Physical maturation and social stimulating must occur before baby is ready to smile Interplay between genetics and environment - For negative emotions (e.g., fear) supported by twin and cross-cultural studies Identical twins more similar than fraternal in fear reactions to strangers and general degree of inhibitedness The Learning Perspective - Useful in explaining individual differences in emotional expression Different emotional expressions have different onsets, frequencies, and intensities in different children - Frequency with which children smile and laugh varies w/ nature of environment theyre raised in - Parents can help children learn and manage their emotions Rewarding them for only certain emotional displays Interfere by being punitive and dismissing childrens emotional expression and experiences - Common sense suggests Parents who respond w/ enthusiasm to childrens smile = infant will be encouraged to smile more - Can also elicit and reinforce fear responses Can learn through operant conditioning (e.g., doctor and needle) Observing others (e.g., child watches mother react fearfully to a bee or large dog) The Functionalist Perspective - Contemporary approach to emotional development - Emotions serve to: help us achieve goals and adapt to environment Making a new friend (arouses emotions: joy and hope as anticipate forming new friendship) or staying out of danger (arouses emotions: fear = helps us flee dangerous situation = goal of self-preservation) emphasizes role of establishing and maintaining social relationships use info provided by others emotional signals to guide own behaviour e.g., if potential friend smiles versus frowns to your social overture if smiles = youll be happy and carry on; if frowns = youll not be pleased and make friends w/ someone else role of social cues play in regulating our emotional perceptions and expressions memories of past serve as guide in shaping how child will respond emotionally to a situation e.g., children whove been rebuffed by potential friends = more wary; children whove been socially successful = more confident - no single theory can fully explain all aspects of emotional development different theories answer different questions emotional responses shaped by complex interplay between biological and environmental factors The Development of Emotional Expressions LO3 - Turning Points, pg 200-201 - Carroll Izard and associated developed most elaborate coding system for infant emotional expressions now in use: Discriminative Facial Movement coding system (MAX) Development of Primary Emotions Positive Primary Emotions: Smiling and Laughter - If watched closely, can see smiles in newborn infants Reflex smile (simple smiles): newborn infants smile, appears to reflect some internal stimulus, such as change in infants level of arousal, rather than external stimulus, such as another persons behaviour May have adaptive value, ensuring critical caregiver attention and stimulation - Between 3 and 8 wks Infants begin to smile in response to not only internal events but wide range of external elicitors e.g., faces, voices, light touches, gentle bouncing particularly interested in ppl and faces and high-pitch human voice or combination of both for babies between 2 and 6 months old - when 3 month olds shown human face and puppet face varied in resemblance of human face infants smiled more to human face infants 2 and 5 months smile more at mothers than toys - as infants grow older, they tend to smile at different aspects of human face smiling behaviour has a similar patter first smile at eyes (4wksold), then mouth (8-9wksold), then the entire efface and facial expression by 3 months old, start to smile more selectively at similar faces e.g., they show greater increases in smiles when its reinforced by reciprocal smiles and vocalizations from mothers than by equally response women who are strangers consistent w/ learning and functionalist perspectives suggesting infants smiling becomes more discriminating as child develops - babys pleasure at watching familiar face revealed in other ways too study: by 10 months, babys have a special kind of smile just for their mothers and no one else (Duchenne Smiles) not just upturned mouth but wrinkles around the eyes = whole face lights up w/ pleasure display genuine smiles more when interacting w/ caregivers than alone smiles during play the display smile: combination of Duchenne smile and a jaw drop; evident in later phases in tickle games and peekaboo build up of excitement following completion of play - not all babies smile at same frequency toward their caregivers depends on social responsiveness of babys environment Israeli infants smiled more by age 2 yrs than infants raised in institutions w/ lower social stimulation - Gender is related In newborn period, girls show more spontaneous smiles than boys Teen girls smile more than boys
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