Textbook Notes (363,185)
Canada (158,247)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 8


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

CHAPTER 8MOOD DISORDERS General Characteristics of Mood DisordersMood disorders disabling disturbances in emotionDepression emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guiltAdditional symptomssocial withdrawal and loss of sleep appetite sexual desire and interest and pleasure in usual activitiesMost depressed people complain of somatic symptoms rather than emotional symptoms only 15 are psychologizers people who emphasize the psychological aspects of depression Mania Emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability hyperactivity talkativeness flight of ideas distractibility and impractical grandiose plans Formal Diagnostic Listings of Mood DisordersMajor depressive disorder MDD Requires 5 of the following symptoms for at least 2 weeks either depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure must be one of the 5 symptoms 1 Sad depressed mood most of the day nearly every day 2 Loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities 3 Difficulties in sleeping insomnia not falling asleep initially not returning to sleep after awakening in the middle of the night or early morning awakenings in some patients a desire to sleep a great deal of the time 4 Shift in activity level becoming either lethargic psychomotor retardation or agitated 5 Poor appetite and weight loss or increased appetite and weight gain 6 Loss of energy great fatigue 7 Negative selfconcept selfreproach and selfblame feelings of worthlessness and guilt 8 Complaints or evidence of difficulty in concentrating such as slowed thinking or indecisiveness 9 Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidePrevalence is incredibly variableTwo times more common in women because they are more insightful with their emotions ruminating coping hypothesisMore severe and persistent depressive episodes with those with bipolar disorderLeading cause of disabilityOn average person experiences 4 bouts of depressionEpisodes typically last 35 months Chronic if they last more than 2 yearsFirst episodes typically have a stronger link with major life events stress than do subsequent bouts of depressionKindling hypothesis the notion that once a depression has already been experienced it takes relatively less stress to induce a recurrenceBipolar I disorder Involves episodes of mania or mixed episodes that include symptoms of both mania and depression
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